Prague ,Czech Republic

Prague 1_Montage
Prague  Czech: Praha,  is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. It is the 15th largest city in the European Union.  It is also the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava River, the city is home to about 1.24 million people, while its larger urban zone is estimated to have a population of nearly 2 million. The city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. Prague has the lowest unemploymentrate in the European Union.
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Flag of Prague
Prague has been a political, cultural, and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its 1,100-year existence. Founded during theRomanesque and flourishing by the Gothic and Renaissance eras, Prague was not only the capital of the Czech state, but also the seat of two Holy Roman Emperorsand thus also the capital of the Holy Roman Empire.
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Map of Prague in Europe
It was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire and after World War Ibecame the capital of Czechoslovakia. The city played major roles in the Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years’ War, and in 20th-century history, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era.
Prague is home to a number of famous cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe. Main attractions include thePrague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.
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Coat of Arms
The city boasts more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries, cinemas, and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city. Also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University (Univerzita Karlova v Praze ). Prague is classified as an “Alpha-” global city according to GaWC studies, comparable to Vienna, Seoul and Washington, D.C. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city receives more than 4.4 million international visitors annually, as of 2011.  Prague ranked fifth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2014.  Prague is the fifth most visited European city after London, Paris, Istanbul and Rome.


History
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The mythological princess Libušeprophesies the glory of Prague.
Main articles: History of Prague and Timeline of Prague
During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, becoming the multicultural capital of a modern European state, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union.
Early history
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The Prague astronomical clock was first installed in 1410, making it the third-oldest astronomical clock in the world and the oldest one still working.
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A view of one of the bridge towers of the Charles Bridge
The area on which Prague was founded was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. According to the Jewish historian and chronicler David Solomon Ganz (1541–1613), author of a book published in Hebrew, entitled Tzemach Dovid, the city was founded by an ancient king, Boyya (Boiia), in c. 1306 BC.  He gave his name to the city that lay around the place where Prague now stands, calling it Boiinhaem. The historical territory of Bohemia (Latin: Boihaemum), located within the western portion of the Czech Republic, and the neighboring Bavaria (Bayern) also took their names from this ancient king, Boyya (Boiia).
Around 200 BC the Celts (Boii) established an oppidum (settlement) in the south of present Prague, now called Závist. By the end of the 1st century BC, the population in Bohemia was composed mostly of the Germanic tribes (Marcomanni, Quadi, Lombards and possibly the Suebi). During the reign of Augustus Caesar (27 BC – 14 AD), the city’s name was Maroboden, after a ruler at that time whose name was Maroboduus, who was a contemporary of Augustus.  Around the area where modern-day Prague stands, the map of Ptolemaios (2nd century) mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis.

In the late 5th century AD, during the great migration period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes moved westwards and in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes settled Central Europe. By the 9th century, the city was called Praha (Prague), by which name it is still called today.
According to legends, Prague was founded in the 8th century by the Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied: “I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars.” On the site she ordered to build a castle and a town called Prague.
By the year 800 there was a simple fort fortified with wooden buildings, occupying about two-thirds of the area that is now Prague Castle. The first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885.
The other Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years later than Prague Castle. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century.
The region became the seat of the dukes, and later kings of Bohemia. Under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973. Until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz.
Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya’qub. The Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands. Prague contained an important slave market.
At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge (Juditin most), named in honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia. This bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342. Some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain.
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Old Prague banner, c. 1477
In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana (“Lesser Quarter”) was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany (Prague Castle) area. This was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights. The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město (“Old Town”), which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications.
The era of Charles IV
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St. Vitus Cathedral atPrague Castle

Prague flourished during the 14th-century reign (1346–1378) of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Bohemia of the new Luxembourg dynasty. As King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, he transformed Prague into an imperial capital and it was at that time the third-largest city in Europe (after Rome and Constantinople).
He ordered the building of the New Town (Nové Město) adjacent to the Old Town and laid out the design himself. The Charles Bridge, replacing the Judith Bridge destroyed in the flood just prior to his reign, was erected to connect the east bank districts to the Malá Strana and castle area. On 9 July 1357 at 5:31 am, Charles IV personally laid the first foundation stone for the Charles Bridge. The exact time of laying the first foundation stone is known because the palindromic number 135797531 was carved into the Old Town bridge tower having been chosen by the royal astrologists and numerologists as the best time for starting the bridge construction. In 1347, he founded Charles University, which remains the oldest university in Central Europe.
He began construction of the Gothic Saint Vitus Cathedral, within the largest of the Prague Castle courtyards, on the site of the Romanesque rotunda there. Prague was elevated to an archbishopric in 1344, the year the cathedral was begun.
The city had a mint and was a centre of trade for German and Italian bankers and merchants. The social order, however, became more turbulent due to the rising power of the craftsmen’s guilds (themselves often torn by internal fights), and the increasing number of poor people.
The Hunger Wall, a substantial fortification wall south of Malá Strana and the Castle area, was built during a famine in the 1360s. The work is reputed to have been ordered by Charles IV as a means of providing employment and food to the workers and their families.
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The precious Czech Crown Jewels are the fourth oldest in Europe
Charles IV died in 1378. During the reign of his son, King Wenceslaus IV (1378–1419), a period of intense turmoil ensued. During Easter 1389, members of the Prague clergy announced that Jews had desecrated the host (Eucharistic wafer) and the clergy encouraged mobs to pillage, ransack and burn the Jewish quarter. Nearly the entire Jewish population of Prague (3,000 people) perished.
Jan Hus, a theologian and rector at the Charles University, preached in Prague. In 1402, he began giving sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel. Inspired by John Wycliffe, these sermons focused on what were seen as radical reforms of a corrupt Church. Having become too dangerous for the political and religious establishment, Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance, put on trial for heresy, and burned at the stake in Constanz in 1415.
Four years later Prague experienced its first defenestration, when the people rebelled under the command of the Prague priest Jan Želivský. Hus’ death, coupled with Czech proto-nationalism and proto-Protestantism, had spurred the Hussite Wars. Peasant rebels, led by the general Jan Žižka, along with Hussite troops from Prague, defeated EmperorSigismund, in the Battle of Vítkov Hill in 1420.
During the Hussite Wars when the City of Prague was attacked by “Crusader” and mercenary forces, the city militia fought bravely under the Prague Banner. This swallow-tailed banner is approximately 4 by 6 feet, with a red field sprinkled with small white fleurs-de-lis, and a silver old Town Coat-of-Arms in the center. The words “PÁN BUH POMOC NASSE” (The Lord is our Relief) appeared above the coat-of-arms, with a Hussite chalice centered on the top. Near the swallow-tails is a crescent shaped golden sun with rays protruding.
One of these banners was captured by Swedish troops in Battle of Prague (1648), when they captured the western bank of the Vltava river and were repulsed from the eastern bank, they placed it in the Royal Military Museum in Stockholm; although this flag still exists, it is in very poor condition. They also took the Codex Gigas and the Codex Argenteus. The earliest evidence indicates that a gonfalon with a municipal charge painted on it was used for Old Town as early as 1419. Since this city militia flag was in use before 1477 and during the Hussite Wars, it is the oldest still preserved municipal flag of Bohemia.
In the following two centuries, Prague strengthened its role as a merchant city. Many noteworthy Gothic buildings  were erected and Vladislav Hall of the Prague Castle was added.
Habsburg era
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Prague panorama in 1650
In 1526, the Bohemian estates elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg. The fervent Catholicism of its members was to bring them into conflict in Bohemia, and then in Prague, where Protestant ideas were gaining popularity.  These problems were not pre-eminent under Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, elected King of Bohemia in 1576, who chose Prague as his home. He lived in the Prague Castle, where his court welcomed not only astrologers and magicians but also scientists, musicians, and artists. Rudolf was an art lover too, and Prague became the capital of European culture.

This was a prosperous period for the city: famous people living there in that age include the astronomers Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, the painter Arcimboldo, the alchemists Edward Kelley and John Dee, the poetess Elizabeth Jane Weston, and others.
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The coat of arms of Prague emerged in the 15th century. The arm was added in 1649.
In 1618, the famous second defenestration of Prague provoked the Thirty Years’ War, a particularly harsh period for Prague and Bohemia. Ferdinand II of Habsburg was deposed, and his place as King of Bohemia taken by Frederick V, Elector Palatine; however the Czech Army under him was crushed in the Battle of White Mountain (1620) not far from the city. Following this in 1621 was an execution of 27 Czech leaders (involved in the uprising) in Old Town Square and the exiling of many others. The city suffered subsequently during the war underSaxon (1631) and Battle of Prague (1682). Prague began a steady decline which reduced the population from the 60,000 it had had in the years before the war to 20,000. In the second half of the 17th century Prague’s population began to grow again. Jews have been in Prague since the end of the 10th century and, by 1708, they accounted for about a quarter of Prague’s population.
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Monument to František Palacký, a significant member of the Czech National Revival
In 1689, a great fire devastated Prague, but this spurred a renovation and a rebuilding of the city. In 1713–14, a major outbreak of plague hit Prague one last time, killing 12,000 to 13,000 people.
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The Gothic Powder Tower
The economic rise continued through the 18th century, and the city in 1771 had 80,000 inhabitants. Many of these were rich merchants and nobles who enriched the city with a host of palaces, churches and gardens full of art and music, creating a Baroque style renowned throughout the world.

After the Battle of Prague in 1757 Prussian bombardment destroyed more than one quarter of the city and heavily damaged St. Vitus Cathedral. However next month after the Battle of Kolín, Frederick II. lost and had to retreat from Bohemia.
In 1784, under Joseph II, the four municipalities of Malá Strana, Nové Město, Staré Město, and Hradčany were merged into a single entity. The Jewish district, called Josefov, was included only in 1850. The Industrial Revolution had a strong effect in Prague, as factories could take advantage of the coal mines and ironworks of the nearby region. A first suburb,Karlín, was created in 1817, and twenty years later the population exceeded 100,000.
The revolutions in Europe in 1848 also touched Prague, but they were fiercely suppressed. In the following years the Czech National Revival began its rise, until it gained the majority in the town council in 1861. Prague had a German-speaking majority in 1848, but by 1880 the number of German speakers had decreased to 14% (42,000), and by 1910 to 6.7% (37,000), due to a massive increase of the city’s overall population caused by the influx of Czechs from the rest of Bohemia and Moravia and also due to return of social status importance of the Czech language.
20th century
The First Republic

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Prague liberated by Red Army in May 1945
World War I ended with the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the creation of Czechoslovakia. Prague was chosen as its capital and Prague Castle as the seat of president Tomáš Masaryk. At this time Prague was a true European capital with highly developed industry. By 1930, the population had risen to 850,000.
Second World War
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Franz Kafkamonument, next to the Spanish synagogue
Hitler ordered the German Army to enter Prague on 15 March 1939 and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. For most of its history Prague had been a multi-ethnic city with important Czech, German and (mostly Czech- and/or German-speaking) Jewish populations.  From 1939, when the country was occupied by Nazi Germany, and during World War II, most Jews were deported and killed by the Germans. In 1942, Prague was witness to the assassination of one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany – Reinhard Heydrich – during Operation Anthropoid, accomplished by Czechoslovak national heroes Jozef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš. Hitler ordered bloody reprisals.
At the end of the war Prague suffered several bombing raids by the US Army Air Forces. 701 people were killed, over 1,000 people were injured and some of buildings, factories and historical landmarks were destroyed (Emmaus Monastery, Faust House, Vinohrady Synagogue). Many historic structures in Prague, however, escaped the destruction of the war and the damage was small compared to the total destruction of many other cities in that time. According to American pilots, it was the result of a navigational mistake.
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Velvet revolution in November 1989
On 5 May 1945, two days before Germany capitulated, an uprising against Germany occurred. Four days later the 3rd Shock Army of the Red Army liberated the city. The majority (about 50.000 people) of the German population of Prague either fled or was expelled by the Beneš decrees in the aftermath of the war.
Cold War

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Prague high-rise buildings
Prague was a city in the territory of military and political control of the Soviet Union (see Iron Curtain). The 4th Czechoslovakian Writers’ Congress held in the city in 1967 took a strong position against the regime.  This spurred the new secretary of the Communist Party, Alexander Dubček, to proclaim a new deal in his city’s and country’s life, starting the short-lived season of the “socialism with a human face”. It was the “Prague Spring”, which aimed at the renovation of institutions in a democratic way. The otherWarsaw Pact member countries, except Romania and Albania, reacted with the invasion of Czechoslovakia and the capital on 21 August 1968 by tanks, suppressing any attempt at reform.

Era after the Velvet Revolution
In 1989, after the riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the Velvet Revolution crowded the streets of Prague, and the Czechoslovak capital benefited greatly from the new mood. In 1993, after the split of Czechoslovakia, Prague became the capital city of the new Czech Republic. From 1995 highrise buildings began to be built in Prague in large quantities. In the late 1990s Prague again became an important cultural centre of Europe and was notably influenced by globalisation. In 2000, in Prague took place IMF and World Bank summits. In 2002 Prague suffered from widespread floods that damaged buildings and also its underground transport system. Prague launched a bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics,  but failed to make the candidate city shortlist. Due to low political support, Prague’s officials chose in June 2009 to cancel the city’s planned bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics as well.
Etymology and other names
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Bridges over the Vltava river, as seen from Letná

The Czech name Praha is derived from an old Slavic word, práh, which means “ford” or “rapid”, referring to the city’s origin at a crossing point of the Vltava river. The same etymology is associated with the Praga district of Warsaw.
Another view to the origin of name is also related to the Czech word práh (in the mean of a threshold) and a legendary etymology connects the name of the city with princessLibuše, prophetess and a wife of mythical founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. She is said to have ordered the city “to be built where a man hews a threshold of his house”. The Czech práh might thus be understood to refer to rapids or fords in the river, the edge of which could have acted as a means of fording the river – thus providing a “threshold” to the castle.
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Old Town Square
Another derivation of the name Praha is suggested from na prazě, the original term for the shale hillside rock upon which the original castle was built. At that time, the castle was surrounded by forests, covering the nine hills of the future city – the Old Town on the opposite side of the river, as well as the Lesser Town beneath the existing castle, appeared only later.


The English spelling of the city’s name is borrowed from French. Prague is also called the “City of a Hundred Spires”, based on a count by 19th-century mathematician Bernard Bolzano, today’s count is estimated by Prague Information Service at 500. Nicknames for Prague have also included: the Golden City, the Mother of Cities and the Heart of Europe.

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Milunić’s and Gehry’s Dancing House

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, Prague has become one of the world’s most popular tourist destinations. Prague suffered considerably less damage during World War II than some other major cities in the region, allowing most of its historic architecture to stay true to form. It contains one of the world’s most pristine and varied collections of architecture, from Romanesque, to Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-Renaissance, Neo-Gothic, Art Nouveau, Cubist, Neo-Classical and ultra-modern. Some popular sights include:
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View of Pařížská st. from Letná Park
Hradčany and Lesser Town (Malá Strana)
Prague Castle with the St. Vitus Cathedral which store the Czech Crown Jewels
The picturesque Charles Bridge (Karlův most)
The Baroque Saint Nicholas Church
Church of Our Lady Victorious and Infant Jesus of Prague
Písek Gate, one of the last preserved city gate of Baroque fortification
Petřín Hill with Petřín Lookout Tower, Mirror Maze and Petřín funicular
Lennon Wall
The Franz Kafka Museum
Kampa Island, an island with a view of the Charles Bridge 
Old Town (Staré Město) and Josefov[edit]
The Astronomical Clock (Orloj) on Old Town City Hall
The Gothic Church of Our Lady before Týn (Kostel Matky Boží před Týnem) from the 14th century with 80 m high towers
The vaulted Gothic Old New Synagogue (Staronová Synagoga) of 1270
Old Jewish Cemetery
Powder Tower (Prašná brána), a Gothic tower of the old city gates
Spanish Synagogue with its beautiful interior
Old Town Square (Staroměstské náměstí) with gothic and baroque architectural styles
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Wenceslas Square
The art nouveau Municipal House, a major civic landmark and concert hall known for its Art Nouveau architectural style and political history in the Czech Republic.
Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, with an extensive collections including glass, furniture, textile, toys, Art Nouveau, Cubism and Art Deco
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Prague historic city centre skyline at dawn is typical for central European metropolises
Clam-Gallas Palace, a baroque palace from 1713
New Town (Nové Město)
Busy and historic Wenceslas Square
The neo-renaissance National Museum with large scientific and historical collections
The National Theatre, a neo-Renaissance building with golden roof, alongside the banks of the Vltava River
The deconstructivist Dancing House (Fred and Ginger Building)
Charles Square, the largest medieval square in Europe (now turned into a park)
The Emmaus monastery and WW Memorial “Prague to Its Victorious Sons” at Palacky Square (Palackého náměstí)
The museum of the Heydrich assassination in the crypt of the Church of Saints Cyril and Methodius
Stiassny’s Jubilee Synagogue is the largest in Prague
The Mucha Museum, showcasing the Art Nouveau works of Alphonse Mucha
Vinohrady and Žižkov
Jan Žižka large bronze equestrian statue in Vítkov Park, Žižkov – Prague 3
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The Charles Bridge is a historic bridge from the 14th century
The neo-Gothic Church of St. Ludmila at Náměstí Míru (Peace Square) in Vinohrady
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St. Nicholas Church in Malá Strana is the best example of the Baroquestyle in Prague
Žižkov Television Tower with sculptures of crawling babies
New Jewish Cemetery in Olšany, location of Franz Kafka’s grave – Prague 3
The Roman Catholic Sacred Heart Church at George of Poděbrady Square (Jiřího z Poděbrad)
The early-20th-century grand Art Nouveau apartment buildings in the area betweenNáměstí Míru (Peace Square) in Vinohrady and Riegrovy Sady
Other places
Vyšehrad Castle with Basilica of St Peter and St Paul, Vyšehrad cemetery and Prague oldest Rotunda of St. Martin
The Prague Metronome at Letná Park, a giant, functional metronome that looms over the city
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Prague Zoo, selected as the fourth best zoo in the world by TripAdvisor
Prague Zoo in Troja, selected as one of the world’s best zoos by Forbes magazine
Industrial Palace (Průmyslový palác), Křižík’s Light fountain, funfair Lunapark and Sea World Aquarium in Výstaviště compound in Holešovice
Letohrádek Hvězda (Star Villa) in Liboc, a renaissance villa in the shape of a six-pointed star surrounded by a game reserve
National Gallery in Prague with large collection of Czech and international paintings and sculptures by artists such as Mucha, Kupka, Picasso, Monet or Van Gogh
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Prague Castle is the biggest ancient castle in the world
Anděl, a busy part of the city with modern architecture and a shopping mall

The large Nusle Bridge, spans the Nusle Valley, linking New Town to Pankrác, with the Metro running underneath the road
Strahov Monastery, an old Czech premonstratensian abbey founded in 1149 and monastic library

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Vyšehrad fortress contains Basilica of St Peter and St Paul, theVyšehrad Cemetery and the oldest Rotunda of St. Martin
 

Transport
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Škoda 15 T, tram of the Prague tram system
Public transportation
The public transport infrastructure (PID, Pražská integrovaná doprava) consists of a heavily-used integrated transport system of Prague Metro (lines A, B, and C – its length is 65 km (40 mi) with 61 stations in total), Prague tram system, Prague buses, funiculars, and six ferries. Prague has one of the highest rates of public transport usage in the world,[citation needed] with 1.2 billion passenger journeys per year. Prague has about 130 bus lines (numbers 100-299) and 22 tram lines (numbers 1-26). There are also three funiculars, one on Petřín Hill, one on Mrázovka Hill and a third at the Zoo in Troja.
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Irisbus of the Prague bus servise
The Prague tram system now operates various types of trams: still popular classic Tatra T3, newer Tatra KT8D5, T6A5, Škoda 14 T(designed by Porsche), newest modern Škoda 15 T and nostalgic tram number 91. Although Melbourne, Australia has the longest total tram system length in the world, Prague’s tram network is one of the largest in the world by other measures.
The Prague tram rolling stock consists of over 900 individual cars, of those around 400 are the modernized T3 class, which are typically operated coupled together in pairs. The system carries more than 356 million passengers annually, the third highest tram patronage in the world after St Petersburg andBudapest. On a per capita basis, Prague has the second highest tram patronage after Zürich.
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Výstaviště compound contains Průmyslový palác, Křižík’s Light Fountain and host funfairLunapark
All services have a common ticketing system, and are run by the Prague Public Transport Company (Dopravní podnik hl. m. Prahy, a. s.) and several other companies. Recently, the Regional Organiser of Prague Integrated Transport (ROPID) has franchised operation of ferries on the Vltava river, which are also a part of the public transport system with common fares. Taxi services make pick-ups on the streets or operate from regulated taxi stands.
Prague metro
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Metro M1 in Prague

The Metro has three major lines extending throughout the city: A (green), B (yellow) and C (red). A fourth Metro line is planned, which would connect the city centre to southern parts of the city.[43] The Prague Metro system served 589.2 million passengers in 2012,[44] making it the fifth busiest metro system in Europe. The first section of the Prague metro was put into operation in 1974. It was the stretch between stations Kačerov and Florenc on the current line C. The first part of Line A was opened in 1978 (Dejvická -Náměstí Míru), the first part of line B in 1985 (Anděl – Florenc).
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Old Town Squarefeaturing Church of Our Lady before Týn and Old Town City Hall with Prague Orloj
In April 2015, construction finished to extend the green line A further into the northwest corner of Prague closer to the airport. A new interchange station for the bus in the direction of the airport is now the station Nádraží Veleslavín. The final station of the green line is Nemocnice Motol (Motol Hospital), giving people direct public transportation access to the largest medical facility in Czech Republic and one of the largest in Europe. A railway connection to the airport is planned.
In operation there are currently two kinds of units: “81-71M” which is modernized variant of the Soviet 81-71 (completely modernized between 1995 and 2003) and new “Metro M1” trains (since 2000), manufactured by consortium consisting of Siemens, ČKD Praha and ADtranz. The minimum interval between two trains is 90 seconds.
prague 28 -Náměstí_Míru
Náměstí Míru (Peace Square) with VinohradyTheatre and Church of St. Ludmila
The original Soviet vehicles “Ečs” were excluded in 1997, but one vehicle is placed in public transport museum in depot Střešovice. The Náměstí Míru metro station is the deepest station and is equipped with the longest escalator in European Union. The Prague metro is generally considered very safe. At metro stations is also striving to architectural appearance.
Roads
prague 39 Barrande_bridge
Barrandov bridge, part of the City (inner) Ring Road
The main flow of traffic leads through the centre of the city and through inner and outer ring roads (partially in operation).
Inner Ring Road (The City Ring “MO”): Once completed it will surround the wider central part of the city. The longest city tunnel in Europe with a proposed length of 5.5 kilometres (3.4 mi) and five interchanges is now being built to relieve congestion in the north-western part of Prague. Called Blanka tunnel complex and to be part of the City Ring Road, it is estimated that it will now cost – after several increases – 43 billion CZK. Construction started in 2007 and the tunnel is scheduled to be completed in 2015. This tunnel complex will complete major part of the inner ring road. The entire City Ring is estimated to be finished after 2020.
Outer Ring Road (The Prague Ring “R1”): This ring road will connect all major motorways and speedways that meet each other in Prague region and provide faster transit without a necessity to drive through the city. So far 39 kilometres or 24 miles, out of total planned 83 kilometres or 52 miles, is in operation. The year of full completion is unknown due to incompetent, constantly changing, leadership of Czech Road and Motorway Directorate, lack of administrative preparations, and insufficient funding of road constructions.[citation needed] Most recently, the southern part of this road (with a length of more than 20 kilometres or 12 miles) was opened on 22 September 2010.
Rail
prague 40 Praha_Hlavni_nadrazi
Prague main railway station
The city forms the hub of the Czech railway system, with services to all parts of the Czech Republic and abroad. The railway system links Prague with major European cities (which can be reached without transfers), including Berlin (Germany); Munich (Germany); Vienna (Austria); Warsaw (Poland); Budapest (Hungary); Košice (Slovakia); Zürich(Switzerland); Split (Croatia) and Moscow (Russia). Travel times range between 4.5 hours to Berlin and approximately 28 hours to Moscow.
Prague’s main international railway station is Hlavní nádraží, rail services are also available from other main stations: Masarykovo nádraží, Holešovice and Smíchov, in addition to suburban stations. Commuter rail services operate under the name Esko Praha, which is part of PID (Prague Integrated Transport).
prague 41 Entrance_to_Prague_airport
Václav Havel Airport Prague
Air
Prague is served by Václav Havel Airport, the biggest airport in the Czech Republic and one of the biggest airport in central and easternEurope. It is the hub of the flag carrier, Czech Airlines,  as well as of the low-cost airlines SmartWings and Wizz

Air operating throughout Europe. Other airports in Prague include the city’s original airport in the north-eastern district of Kbely, which is serviced by the Czech Air Force, also internationally. The runway (9–27) at Kbely is 2 km (1 mi) long. The airport also houses the Prague Aviation Museum. The nearby Letňany airport is mainly used for private aviation and aeroclub aviation. Another airport in the proximity is Aero Vodochody aircraft factory to the north, used for testing purposes, as well as for aeroclub aviation. There are a few aeroclubs around Prague, such as the Točná airfield.
Geography
Prague 42 _Panorama_-_Oct_2010
Prague is situated on the Vltava river, at 50°05″N and 14°27″E.  in the centre of the Bohemian Basin. Prague is approximately at the same latitude as Frankfurt, Germany; Paris, France; and Vancouver, Canada.

Climate
Prague 43 _SPOT_1030
Prague seen from satellite
The city of Prague lies between oceanic climate and humid continental climate (Köppen Cfb). The winters are relatively cold with average temperatures at about freezing point, and with very little sunshine. Snow cover can be common between mid-November to late March although snow accumulations of more than 20 cm (8 in) are infrequent. There are also a few periods of mild temperatures in winter. Summers usually bring plenty of sunshine and the average high temperature of 24 °C (75 °F).
Prague 34 _-_night
Prague at night
Nights can be quite cool even in summer, though. Precipitation in Prague (and most of the Bohemian lowland) is rather low since it is located in the rain shadow of the Sudetes and other mountain ranges. The driest season is usually winter while the summers can bring quite heavy rain especially in form of violent storms and showers. Temperature inversions are relatively common between mid-October and mid-March bringing foggy, cold days and sometimes moderate air pollution. Prague is also a windy city with common sustained western winds and an average wind speed of 16 kph (10 mph) that often help break temperature inversions and clear the air in cold months.
Culture
prague 44 -Praha_Veletržní_palác_jih
Prague Congress Centre has hosted the IMF-WBG meeting and NATO summit
The city is traditionally one of the cultural centres of Europe, hosting many cultural events.

Some of the significant cultural institutions include the National Theatre (Národní Divadlo) and the Estates Theatre (Stavovské or Tylovo or Nosticovo divadlo), where the premières of Mozart’s Don Giovanni and La clemenza di Tito were held. Other major cultural institutions are the Rudolfinum which is home to the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra and the Municipal House which is home to the Prague Symphony Orchestra. The Prague State Opera (Státní opera) performs at the Smetana Theatre.
prague 45 Praha_Rudolfinum_isometric
Rudolfinum, a concert and exhibition hall
The city has many world-class museums, including the National Museum (Národní muzeum), the Museum of the Capital City of Prague, the Jewish Museum in Prague, theAlfons Mucha Museum, the African-Prague Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, the Náprstek Museum (Náprstkovo Muzeum), the Josef Sudek Gallery, theNational Library and the National Gallery, which manages the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic.
Prague 31 _Praha_2014_Holmstad_flott_gammelnye_synagoge_old-new_synagogue_Josefov
Old New Synagogue is Europe’s oldest active synagogue. Legend has Golem lying in the loft
There are hundreds of concert halls, galleries, cinemas and music clubs in the city. It hosts music festivals including the Prague Spring International Music Festival, the Prague Autumn International Music Festival, the Prague International Organ Festival and the Prague International Jazz Festival.

Film festivals include the Febiofest, the One World Film Festival and Echoes of the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival. The city also hosts the Prague Writers’ Festival, the Prague Folklore Days, Prague Advent Choral Meeting the Summer Shakespeare Festival, the Prague Fringe Festival, the World Roma Festival, as well as the hundreds of Vernissages and fashion shows.
prague 29 Praha_Narodni_divadlo
National Theatre offers opera, drama, ballet and other performances
Many films have been made at Barrandov Studios and at Prague Studios. Hollywood films set in Prague include Mission Impossible, xXx, Blade II, Alien vs. Predator, Doom,Chronicles of Narnia, Hellboy, Red Tails, Children of Dune and Van Helsing.  Other Czech films shot in Prague include Empties, EuroTrip, Amadeus and The Fifth Horseman is Fear. Also, the romantic music video “Never Tear Us Apart” by INXS, “Diamonds from Sierra Leone” by Kanye West was shot in the city, and features shots of the Charles Bridge and the Astronomical Clock, among other famous landmarks. Rihanna’s “Don’t Stop the Music” video was filmed at Prague’s Radost FX Club. The city was also the setting for the film Dungeons and Dragons in 2000. The music video “Silver and Cold” by AFI, an American rock band, was also filmed in Prague. Many Indian films have also been filmed in the city including Yuvraaj, Drona and Rockstar.
Forbes Traveler magazine and TripAdvisor listed Prague Zoo among the world’s best zoos.

With the growth of low-cost airlines in Europe, Prague has become a popular weekend city destination allowing tourists to visit its many museums and cultural sites as well as try its famous Czech beers and hearty cuisine.
Prague 45a _Congress_Centre_(1)
Prague Congress Centre has hosted the IMF-WBG meeting and NATO summit
The city has many buildings by renowned architects, including Adolf Loos (Villa Müller), Frank O. Gehry (Dancing House) and Jean Nouvel (Golden Angel).
Recent major events held in Prague:
International Monetary Fund and World Bank Summit 2000
NATO Summit 2002
International Olympic Committee Session 2004
IAU General Assembly 2006 (Definition of planet)
EU & USA Summit 2009
Czech Presidency of the Council of the European Union 2009
USA & Russia Summit 2010 (signing of the New START treaty)
prague 32 Praha,_Vítkov,_památník_II
National Monument on Vítkov Hill, the statue ofJan Žižka is the third largest bronze equestrian statue in the world
Cuisine
In 2008 the Allegro restaurant received the first Michelin star in the whole of the post-Communist part of Central Europe. It retained its star until 2011. As of 2012 there are two Michelin-starred restaurants in Prague (Alcron and La Degustation Bohême Bourgeoise).
In Malá Strana, Staré Město, Žižkov and Nusle there are hundreds of restaurants, bars and pubs, especially with Czech beer. Prague also hosts the Czech Beer Festival (Český pivní festival), which is the biggestbeer festival in the Czech Republic, held for 17 days every year in May. At the festival, more than 70 brands of Czech beer can be tasted.
Prague is home to many breweries including:
Pivovary Staropramen (Praha 5)
První novoměstský restaurační pivovar (Praha 1)
Pivovar U Fleků (Praha 1)
Klášterní pivovar Strahov (Praha 1)
Pivovar Pražský most u Valšů (Praha 1)
Pivovarský Hotel U Medvídků (Praha 1)
Pivovarský dům (Praha 2)
Jihoměstský pivovar (Praha 4)
Sousedský pivovar U Bansethů (Praha 4)
Vyukový a výzkumný pivovar – Suchdolský Jeník (Praha 6)
Pivovar U Bulovky (Praha 8)
Economy
prague 47 CSA_building_Ruzyne
Head office of Czech Airlines inRuzyně, Prague
prague 48 Zizkov_tv_tower
Žižkov Television Tower with crawling “babies”
Prague’s economy accounts for 25% of the Czech Republic’s GDP  making it the highest performing regional economy of the country. According to the Eurostat, as of 2007, its GDP per capita in purchasing power standard is 42,800 €. Prague ranked the 5th best-performing European NUTS two-level region at 172 percent of the EU-27 average.
The city is the site of the European headquarters of many international companies.
Since 1990, the city’s economic structure has shifted from industrial to service-oriented. Industry is present in sectors such as pharmaceuticals, printing, food processing, manufacture of transport equipment, computer technology and electrical engineering. In the service sector, most significant are financial and commercial services, trade, restaurants, hospitality and public administration. Services account for around 80 percent of employment. There are 800,000 employees in Prague, including 120,000 commuters. The number of (legally registered) foreign residents in Prague has been increasing in spite of the country’s economic downturn. As of March 2010, 148,035 foreign workers were reported to be living in the city making up about 18 percent of the workforce, up from 131,132 in 2008.  Approximately one-fifth of all investment in the Czech Republic takes place in the city.

Almost one-half of the national income from tourism is spent in Prague. The city offers approximately 73,000 beds in accommodation facilities, most of which were built after 1990, including almost 51,000 beds in hotels and boarding houses.
From the late 1990s to late 2000s, the city was a popular filming location for international productions and Hollywood, Bollywood motion pictures. A combination of architecture, low costs and the existing motion picture infrastructure have proven attractive to international film production companies.
The modern economy of Prague is largely service and export-based and, in a 2010 survey, the city was named the best city in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) for business.
In 2005, Prague was deemed among the three best cities in Central and Eastern Europe according to The Economist’s livability rankings. The city was named as a top-tier nexus city for innovation across multiple sectors of the global innovation economy, placing 29th globally out of 289 cities, ahead of Brussels and Helsinki for innovation in 2010 in 2thinknow annual analysts Innovation Cities Index. The street Na příkopě in New Town is the most expensive in whole Central Europe.
In the Eurostat research, Prague ranked fifth among Europe’s 271 regions in terms of gross domestic product per inhabitant, achieving 172 percent of the EU average. It ranked just above Paris and well above the Czech Republic as a whole, which achieved 80 percent of the EU average.
Prague is also the site of some of the most important offices and institutions of the Czech Republic.
President of the Czech Republic
The Government and both houses of Parliament
Ministries and other national offices (Industrial Property Office, Czech Statistical Office, National Security Authority etc.)
Czech National Bank
Czech Television and other major broadcasters
Radio Free Europe – Radio Liberty
Galileo global navigation project
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Education

prague 49 Fil_fakulta_DSCN1903
Charles University in Prague, founded in 1348, was the first university in Central Europe
prague 50 -Vencovskeho_aula
University of Economics, Prague
Twelve universities, and a number of colleges and schools are located in the city, including:
Public universities[edit]
Charles University founded in 1348, the oldest university in Central Europe
Czech Technical University (ČVUT) founded in 1707
Institute of Chemical Technology (VŠCHT) founded in 1920
University of Economics (VŠE) founded in 1953
Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (ČZU) founded in 1906/1952
Public arts academies
Academy of Fine Arts (AVU) founded in 1800
Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design (VŠUP) founded in 1885
Academy of Performing Arts (AMU) founded in 1945

Private schools
University of New York in Prague (UNYP) founded in 1998
International School of Prague (ISP) founded in 1948
Anglo-American University (AAU) founded in 1990
University of Northern Virginia in Prague (UNVA) founded in 1998
Architectural Institute in Prague (ARCHIP) founded in 2010
The University of Finance and Administration (VSFS) founded in 1999
Metropolitan University Prague (MUP) founded in 2001
Prague College founded in 2004
International institutions
New York University
Instituto Camões
Goethe-Institut
Instituto Cervantes
British Council
Alliance Française
Science, research and hi-tech centres
prague 51 Praha_Holesovice_Galileo
Headquarters of the Galileo system in Prague’s Holešovice
See also: Category:Science and technology in the Czech Republic.
The region city of Prague is an important centre of research. It is the seat of 39 out of 54 institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences, including the largest ones, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Microbiology and the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry. It is also a seat of 10 public research institutes, four business incubators and large hospitals performing research and development activities such as the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine in Prague or the Motol University Hospital. Universities seated in Prague (see section Colleges and Universities) also represent important centres of science and research activities.
As of 2008, there were 13,000 researchers (out of 30,000 in the Czech Republic, counted in full-time equivalent), representing 3% share of Prague’s economically active population. Gross expenditure on research and development accounted for 901.3 million € (41.5% of country’s total)
.
Some well-known multinational companies have established research and development facilities in Prague, among them Siemens, Honeywell and Sun Microsystems.
In 2010, Prague was selected to host administration of the EU satellite navigation system Galileo. For civilian purposes it should be launched in 2016, full completion is expected by 2020.
Sport

prague 52 O2_Arena,_od_Českomoravské
The O2 Arena was built to host the2004 Men’s World Ice Hockey Championships
Prague is the site of many sports events, national stadiums and teams.
Sparta Prague (Czech First League) – football club
Slavia Prague (Czech First League) – football club
Dukla Prague (Czech First League) – football club
Bohemians 1905 (Czech First League) – football club
Viktoria Žižkov (Czech 2. Liga) – football club
HC Sparta Praha (Czech Extraliga) – ice hockey club
HC Slavia Praha (1st Czech Republic Hockey League) – ice hockey club
O2 Arena – the second largest ice hockey arena in Europe. It hosted 2004 and2015 Ice Hockey World Championship, NHL 2008 and 2010 Opening Game andEuroleague Final Four
Strahov Stadium – the largest stadium in the world
Prague International Marathon
Prague Open – Tennis Tournament held by the I. Czech Lawn Tennis Club
Sparta Prague Open – Tennis Tournament held in Prague 7
Josef Odložil Memorial – Athletics meeting
Mystic SK8 Cup – World Cup of Skateboarding venue takes place at the Štvaniceskatepark
Gutovka – sport area with a large concrete skatepark, the highest outside climbing wall in Central Europe, four beach volleyball courts and children’s playground
World Ultimate Club Championships 2010

prague 53 PetrinObservationTower
Petřín Lookout Tower, an observation tower built at Petřín hill.

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