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Sexy Mombai Girls

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Mumbai /mʊmˈbaɪ/, formerly known as Bombay, is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million. Along with the neighbouring urban areas, including the cities of Navi Mumbai and Thane, it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world. Mumbai lies on the westcoast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2009, Mumbai was named an Alpha world city. It is also the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, West or Central Asia. Mumbai has been ranked 6th among top 10 global cities on billionaire count, ahead of Shanghai, Paris and Los Angeles.
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The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese and subsequently to the British East India Company. During the mid-18th century, Mumbai was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook the reclamation of the area between the seven constituent islands from the sea.
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Completed by 1845, the project along with construction of major roads and railways transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Economic and educational development characterised the city during the 19th century. It became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the early 20th century. When India became independent in 1947, the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as capital. The city was renamed Mumbai in 1996, the name being derived from the Koli goddess—Mumbadevi.
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Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment capital of India, it is also one of the world’s top 10 centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 5% of India’s GDP, and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India (Mumbai Port Trust & JNPT), and 70% of capital transactions to India’s economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBIand the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. It is also home to some of India’s premier scientific and nuclear institutes like BARC, NPCL, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city also houses India’s Hindi (Bollywood) and Marathi film and television industry. Mumbai’s business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India and, in turn, make the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures.

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Mumbai City
The name Mumbai is derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba—the name of the Koligoddess Mumbadevi—and Aai, “mother” in the language of Marathi.
The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used. Ali Muhammad Khan, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi (1507) referred to the city as Manbai. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the nameBombaim, in his Lendas da Índia (“Legends of India”). This name possibly originated as the Old Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning “good little bay”, and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu toMumbadevi.

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The temple of local Hindu goddess Mumbadevi, after whom the city of Mumbai derives its name
Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn (1525),Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563),Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), and Boon Bay(1690). After the British gained possession of the city in the 17th century, thePortuguese name was officially anglicised as Bombay.

By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati,Kannada and Sindhi, and as Bambai in Hindi, Persian and Urdu. The English name was officially changed to Mumbai in November 1995. This came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party that had just won the Maharashtra state elections and mirrored similar name changes across the country. They argued that “Bombay” was a corrupted English version of “Mumbai” and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region. However, the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and Indians from other regions as well. However, mentions of the city by the name other than Mumbai have been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature.
Castella de Aguada
Fort of the waterpoint Built by the portugese in 1640
A widespread popular etymology of Bombay holds that it was derived from a Portuguese name meaning “good bay”. This is based on the facts that bom is Portuguese for “good” and baía (or the archaic spelling bahia) means “bay”. However, this literal translation would have been incorrect ingrammatical gender, as bom is masculine, while baia is feminine; a correct Portuguese rendering of “good bay” would be boa ba(h)ia. Having said this, baim is an archaic, masculine word for “little bay”.
Portuguese scholar José Pedro Machado in his Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa (1981; “Portuguese Dictionary of Onomastics and Etymology”), seems to reject the “Bom Bahia” hypothesis, suggesting that the presence of a bay was a coincidence (rather than a basis of the toponym) and led to a misconception, that the noun (bahia; “bay”) was an integral part of the Portuguese name.
Early history

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Kanheri Caves served as a centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient times
Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon,Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman’s Island (also known as Little Colaba). It is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited. Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai suggest that the islands were inhabited since the Stone Age Perhaps at the beginning of the Common era (2000 years ago), or possibly earlier, they came to be occupied by the Koli fishing community.
In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were excavated in the mid-third century BCE, and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient Times. The city then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek geographer Ptolemy in 150 CE.
Between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Kshatrapas, Abhiras, Vakatakas,Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas, before being ruled by the Silhara dynasty from 810 to 1260. Some of the oldest edifices in the city built during this period are,Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 to 525), Elephanta Caves (between the sixth to seventh century), Walkeshwar Temple (10th century), and Banganga Tank (12th century).
King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the late 13th century, and established his capital in Mahikawati (present dayMahim). The Pathare Prabhus, one of the earliest known settlers of the city, were brought to Mahikawati from Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev. The Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 1347–48, and controlled it till 1407. During this time, the islands were administered by the Muslim Governors of Gujarat, who were appointed by the Delhi Sultanate.

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The Haji Ali Dargah was built in 1431, when Mumbai was under the rule of theGujarat Sultanate
The islands were later governed by the independent Gujarat Sultanate, which was established in 1407. The Sultanate’s patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the Gujarat Sultanate and theBahamani Sultanate of Deccan. In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahamani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands, but was defeated.
European rule
The Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinentduring the mid-16th century. Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal emperorHumayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty, the seven islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese. The territories were later surrendered on 25 October 1535.
St. John the Baptist Church in Mumbai
Ruins of the St. John the Baptist Church in SEEPZ, one of the earliest churches built by the Portuguese in the city
The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and growth of their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay.
Some of the oldest Catholic churches in the city such as the St. Michael’s Church at Mahim (1534), St. John the Baptist Church atAndheri (1579), St. Andrew’s Church at Bandra (1580), and Gloria Church at Byculla (1632), date from the Portuguese era. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in possession of the British Empire, as part of Catherine’s dowry to Charles. However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel,Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. From 1665 to 1666, the British managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala.
Ruins of Fort St. George, Mumbai
Remains of Fort George, an extension built to the fortified walls of Bombay in 1769.j
These islands were in turn leased to the British East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £10 per annum by the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. The islands were subsequently attacked byYakut Khan, the Siddi admiral of the Mughal Empire, in October 1672 Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of Dutch India on 20 February 1673, and Siddi admiral Sambal on 10 October 1673.
In 1687, the British East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency. Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company’s establishments in India. Towards the end of the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689–90. The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Marathas under Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Salsette in 1737, and Bassein in 1739.

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A view of Mumbai, c. 1905
By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India. Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774. With the Treaty of Surat (1775), the British formally gained control ofSalsette and Bassein, resulting in the First Anglo-Maratha War. The British were able to secure Salsette from the Marathas without violence through the Treaty of Purandar (1776), and later through the Treaty of Salbai (1782), signed to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War.
From 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands into a single amalgamated mass. This project, known as Hornby Vellard, was completed by 1784. In 1817, the British East India Company under Mountstuart Elphinstone defeated Baji Rao II, the last of the Maratha Peshwa in the Battle of Khadki. Following his defeat, almost the whole of the Deccan came under British suzerainty, and were incorporated in Bombay Presidency. The success of the British campaign in the Deccan witnessed the freedom of Bombay from all attacks by native powers.
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Ships in Bombay Harbour (c. 1731). Bombay emerged as a significant trading town during the mid-18th century.
By 1845, the seven islands were coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project via large scale land reclamation. On 16 April 1853, India’s first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thane. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the world’s chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy that subsequently enhanced the city’s stature.
The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea. In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week. About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry was adversely affected. As the capital of the Bombay Presidency, it witnessed the Indian independence movement, with the Quit India Movement in 1942 and The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny in 1946 being its most notable events.
Independent India

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The Hutatma Chowk memorial, built to honour the martyrs of theSamyukta Maharashtra movement. (Flora Fountain is on its left in the background.)
After India’s independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into the state. Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State. On April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging theBombay Suburban District and Bombay City to form Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation.
The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the 1950s. In the Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. The States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra–Gujarat with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report.Bombay Citizens’ Committee, an advocacy group of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay’s independent status.
mumb 39 The Sikh parade at the Gateway to India on the occasion of the departure of British Troops from India on 28 February 1948.
The Sikh parade at the Gateway to India on the occasion of the departure of British Troops from India on 28 February 1948
Following protests during the movement in which 105 people were killed by police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960. Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat. Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them. As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr’s Square), and a memorial was erected.
The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed. The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) was set up on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtraas an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region. In August 1979, a sister township of Navi Mumbai was founded by City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) across Thane and Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay’s population. Textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the massive 1982 Great Bombay Textile Strike, in which nearly 250,000 workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike. Mumbai’s defunct cotton mills have since become the focus of intense redevelopment.
The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which currently handles 55–60% of India’s containerised cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 at Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the city. The geographical limits of Greater Bombay were coextensive with municipal limits of Greater Bombay. On 1 October 1990, the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form two revenue districts namely, Bombay City and Bombay Suburban, though they were administered by same Municipal Administration.
The past two decades have seen an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful city. Following the demolition of the Babri Masjidin Ayodhya, the city was rocked by the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992–93 in which more than 1,000 people were killed. On 12 March 1993,a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths and over 700 injuries. In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded on the city’s commuter trains. In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to a couple of heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels. The blasts that occurred at the Opera House, Zaveri Bazaar, and Dadar on 13 July 2011 were the latest in the series of terrorist attacks in Mumbai.
Today, Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub. For several decades it has been the home of India’s main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment. From being an ancient fishing community and a colonial centre of trade, Mumbai has become South Asia’s largest city and home of the world’s most prolific film industry.

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Mumbai consists of two revenue districts

Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. The city district region is also commonly referred to as the Island City or South Mumbai. The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi). Of this, the island city spans 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi), while the suburban district spans 370 km2 (143 sq mi), together accounting for 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi) under the administration ofBrihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The remaining area belongs to Defence, Mumbai Port Trust, Atomic Energy Commission and Borivali National Park, which are out of the jurisdiction of the BMC.

Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. It sits on Salsette Island, partially shared with the Thane district. Mumbai is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west. Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft); the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft). Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly, and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai–Kanheri ranges. Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi).
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Mumbai metropolitan region,Landsat 5 satellite image, 2011-01-30
Apart from the Bhatsa Dam, there are six major lakes that supply water to the city: Vihar, Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai. Tulsi Lake and Vihar Lake are located in Borivili National Park, within the city’s limits. The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes. Three small rivers, the Dahisar River, Poinsar (or Poisar) and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) originate within the park, while the polluted Mithi River originates from Tulsi Lake and gathers water overflowing from Vihar and Powai Lakes. The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from Thane creek on the eastern to Madh Marve on the western front. The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangroveswamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky.

Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. The underlying rock of the region is composed of blackDeccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and earlyEocene eras. Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the vicinity. The area is classified as a Seismic Zone III region, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter-scale may be expected.

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Average temperature and precipitation in Mumbai
Mumbai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) under the Köppen climate classification, with seven months of dryness and peak of rains in July. The cooler season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season.
Between June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the city. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (136 in) for 1954. The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37 in) on 26 July 2005. The average total annual rainfall is 2,146.6 mm (85 in) for the Island City, and 2,457 mm (97 in) for the suburbs.
The average annual temperature is 27.2 °C (81 °F), and the average annual precipitation is 2,167 mm (85 in). In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is 31.2 °C (88 °F), while the average minimum temperature is 23.7 °C (75 °F). In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from 29.1 °C (84 °F) to 33.3 °C (92 °F), while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from16.3 °C (61 °F) to 26.2 °C (79 °F). The record high is 40.2 °C (104 °F) on 28 March 1982, and the record low is 7.4 °C (45 °F) on 27 January 1962.

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Dadar and Worli Skyline
Mumbai is India’s largest city (by population) and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total GDP. It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of India’s foreign trade and 4,000 crore (US$680 million) in corporate taxes.
As of 2008, Mumbai’s GDP is 919,600 crore (US$160 billion), and its per-capita (PPP) income in 2009 was 486,000 (US$8,200), which is almost three times the national average. Its nominal per capita income is 125,000 (US$2,100), (US$2,094). Many of India’s numerous conglomerates (including Larsen and Toubro, State Bank of India, Life Insurance Corporation of India, Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance), and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai. Many foreign banks and financial institutions also have branches in this area, with the World Trade Centre being the most prominent one.
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Mumbai is the Financial and Commercial capital of India, and the headquarters of many of India’s premier financial institutions are located in the city. Seen here is the Bandra-Worli Sea Link with the skyline of Mumbai in background
Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since been diversified to include engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology. As of 2008, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an “Alpha world city”, third in its categories ofGlobal cities. Mumbai is the 3rd most expensive office market in the world. Mumbai was ranked among the fastest cities in the country for business startup in 2009.

State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city’s workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self-employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collarprofessions. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India. In Dharavi, in central Mumbai, there is an increasingly large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from other parts of the city; the district has an estimated 15,000 single-room factories.
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Mumbai Skyline at Night
Most of India’s major television and satellite networks, as well as its major publishing houses, are headquartered in Mumbai. The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood, is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest in the world as well as centre of Marathi Film Industry. Along with the rest of India, Mumbai, its commercial capital, has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in 2000s.
Mumbai has been ranked 6th among top 10 global cities on billionaire count, ahead of Shanghai, Paris and Los Angeles.[11]
Mumbai has been ranked 48th on the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008. In April 2008, Mumbai was ranked seventh in the list of “Top Ten Cities for Billionaires” by Forbes magazine, and first in terms of those billionaires’ average wealth.
Civic administration

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Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) Headquarters, the largest civic organisation in the country.
Mumbai, extending from Colaba in the south, to Mulund and Dahisar in the north, and Mankhurd in the east, is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The BMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis. The Mayor is usually chosen through indirect election by the councillors from among themselves for a term of two and half years.
The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner who is anIndian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government. Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee.
The two revenue districts of Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city.
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The Bombay High Court exercises jurisdiction over Maharashtra, Goa, Daman and Diu, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. The Mumbai Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by four Deputy Chief Fire Officers and six Divisional Officers.
Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. Mumbai also has a special TADA (Terrorist and Disruptive Activities) court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.

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First session of the Indian National Congress in Bombay (28–31 December 1885)
Mumbai has been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885. The city played host to the Indian National Congress six times during its first 50 years, and became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the 20th century.
The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Senaon 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Bombay. The party headed a campaign to expel South Indian and North Indian migrants by force. The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay from independence until the early 1980s, when the Shiv Sena won the 1985 Bombay municipal corporation elections.

In 1989, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a major national political party, forged an electoral alliance with the Shiv Sena to dislodge the Congress in the Maharashtra Legislative Assemblyelections. In 1999, the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) separated from the Congress, but later allied with the Congress, to form a joint venture known as the Democratic Front. Currently, other parties such as Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS), Samajwadi Party(SP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and several independent candidates also contest elections in the city.
In the Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: Mumbai North, Mumbai North West, Mumbai North East, Mumbai North Central, Mumbai South Central, and Mumbai South. A Member of Parliament (MP) to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, is elected from each of the parliamentary constituencies. In the 2009 national elections, out of the six parliamentary constituencies, five were won by the Congress, and one by the NCP. In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.

A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) to the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) is elected from each of the assembly constituencies. In the 2009 state assembly elections, out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 17 were won by the Congress, 6 by the MNS, 5 by the BJP, 4 by the Shiv Sena, 3 by the NCP and 1 by SP. Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the BMC.
The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards, five nominated Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, and a Mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial. In the 2007 municipal corporation elections, out of the 227 seats, the Shiv Sena-BJP alliance secured 111 seats, holding power in the BMC, while the Congress-NCP alliance bagged 85 seats. The tenure of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, and Municipal Commissioner is two and a half years.
Mumb 19 Bombay rail
Mumbai Suburban Railway system carries more than 6.99 million commuters on a daily basis. It has the highest passenger densities of any urban railway system in the world.
Public transport
Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, black-and-yellow meter taxis, auto rickshaws andferries. Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008.
mumb 24 Mumbai_Train_Station
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus, is the headquarters of the Central Railwayand a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Mumbai Suburban Railway, popularly known as Locals forms the backbone of the city’s transport system. It is operated by Central Railway and Western Railway. Mumbai’s suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007, which is more than half of the Indian Railways daily carrying capacity. Trains are overcrowded during peak hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers, actually carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours. The Mumbai rail network is spread at an expanse of 319 route kilometres. 191 rakes (ratin-sets) of 9 car and 12 car composition are utilised to run a total of 2,226 train services in the city.

The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro are under construction and expected to be partially operational in 2013, relieving overcrowding on the existing network.

Mumbai is the headquarters of two of Indian Railways’ zones: the Central Railway (CR)headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR) headquartered at Churchgate. Mumbai is also well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways. Long-distance trains originate from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus,Dadar, Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai Central, Bandra Terminus, Andheri and Borivali.
mumb 20 BEST-Mumbai-Brtsnewaug08
A BESTStarbus. BEST buses carry a total of 4.5 million passengers daily.
Mumbai’s bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008. Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane. The BEST operates a total of 4,608 buses with CCTV Camera installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily over 390 routes. Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro IIIcompliant diesel and Compressed Natural Gas powered buses. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC) buses provide intercity transport and connect Mumbai with other major cities of Maharashtra and India. Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) also operates its Volvo buses in Mumbai, from Navi Mumbai to Bandra, Dindoshi and Borivali.
Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.
The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. Mumbai BRTS (Bus Rapid Transit System) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai, with buses running on seven routes as of March 2009 Though 88% of the city’s commuters travel by public transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with traffic congestion. Mumbai’s transport system has been categorised as one of the most congested in the world.
mumb 23 Worli_skyline_with_BSWL
The Bandra-Worli Sea Link is a cable-stayed bridge that connects central Mumbai with its western suburbs
Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4, National Highway 8, National Highway 17 and National Highway 222 of India’s National Highways system. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first expressway built in India, while the Mumbai Nashik Expressway, Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway, Western Freeway and Eastern Freeway is under construction. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge, along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs. The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane, the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Borivali. Mumbai has approximately 1,900 km (1,181 mi) of roads.
Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, but generally operate in South Mumbai.
The black and yellow Premier Padmini Taxis are iconic of Mumbai.
Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG), and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport.
mumb 22 Tonga_Marine_drive_Mumbai
Tonga seen at night in the Marine Driveroad
Mumbai had about 1.53 million vehicles in 2008, 56,459 black and yellow taxis as of 2005, and 106,000 auto rickshaws, as of May 2013. According to State transport department figures, the number of vehicles registered with the city’s three RTOs went up from 10,69,499 in 2002 to 20,35,051 in 2012, a rise of 90.28%. A comprehensive transport study conducted shows that between 1991 and 2005, cars have increased by 137%, two wheelers by 306%, autos by 420%, and taxis by 125% in Mumbai.
mumb 25 Mumbai_Airport
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airportis India’s second-busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic.
The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic. It handled 30.74 million passengers and 656,369 tonnes of cargo during FY 2011-12. An upgrade plan was initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually. .
The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.
The Juhu Aerodrome was India’s first airport, and now hosts a flying club and a heliport.

mumb 26 Jawaharlal_Nehru_Trust_Port
Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust is the busiest port in India
Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which lies just across the creek in Navi Mumbai. Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities. Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India. It handles 55–60% of the country’s total containerised cargo. Ferries from Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city.
The city is also the headquarters of the Western Naval Command, and also an important base for the Indian Navy.
Utility services
Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai. Many localities have been named after them. The BMC supplies potable water to the city from six lakes, most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway. The water is filtered at Bhandup, which is Asia’s largest water filtration plant. India’s first underground water tunnel is being built in Mumbai.

About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai. Almost all of Mumbai’s daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste, is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and to the Deonar dumping ground in the east. Sewage treatment is carried out at Worli and Bandra, and disposed of by two independent marine outfalls of 3.4 km (2.11 mi) and 3.7 km (2.30 mi) at Bandra and Worli respectively.
Electricity is distributed by Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) in the island city, and by Reliance Energy, Tata Power, and Mahavitaran (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd) in the suburbs. Consumption of electricity is growing faster than production capacity. The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services.
Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTNL, Loop Mobile, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city. Many of the above service providers also provide broadband internet and wireless internet access in Mumbai. Mumbai has highest number of internet users in India with 14.3 million users.

mumb 27 High_Rise
Skyline of the city during the day.
The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic, Art Deco, and other contemporary styles. Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style. Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features. There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India. Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of the Oval Maidan. Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami.

In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under construction as of 2009.
The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city’s heritage structures. Mumbai has two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Elephanta Caves. Popular tourist attractions in the city are Nariman Point, Girgaum Chowpatti, Juhu Beach, and Marine Drive. Essel World is a theme park and amusement centre situated close to Gorai Beach, and includes Asia’s largest theme water park, Water Kingdom.
mumb 42 Seen here is the crowd, which includes international and local tourists, local photographers with the monument at the background.
Seen here is the crowd, which includes international and local tourists, local photographers with the monument at the background.

In the south of Mumbai, there are colonial-era buildings and Soviet-style offices.
In the east are factories and some slums. On the West coast are former-textile mills being demolished and skyscrapers built on top. There are 31 buildings taller than 100m, compared with 200 in Shanghai, 500 in Hong Kong and 500 in New York.
mumbai 41
Population growth
Census Pop. %±
1971 5,970,575 —
1981 8,243,405 38.1%
1991 9,925,891 20.4%
2001 11,914,398 20.0%
2011 12,478,447 4.7%

According to the 2011 census, the population of Mumbai was 12,479,608. The population density is estimated to be about 20,482 persons per square kilometre. The living space is 4.5sq metre per person. As Per 2011 census, Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of the MCGM, has a literacy rate of 94.7%, higher than the national average of 86.7%. The number of slum-dwellers is estimated to be 9 million, up from 6 million in 2001, that is, 62% of all Mumbaikers live in informal slums.
The sex ratio was 838 (females per 1,000 males) in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males. The low sex ratio is partly because of the large number of male migrants who come to the city to work.

Residents of Mumbai call themselves Mumbaikar, Mumbaiite or Bombayite. Mumbai has a large polyglot population like any other metropolitan city of India. Marathi, the official language of Maharashtra state, of which Mumbai is the capital, is widely spoken and understood in the city. Sixteen major languages of India are also spoken in Mumbai, most common being Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati and English. English is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the city’s white collar workforce. A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya – a blend of Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Konkani, Urdu, Indian Englishand some invented words – is spoken on the streets.

The number of households in Mumbai is forecast to rise from 4.2 million in 2008 to 6.6 million in 2020. The number of households with annual incomes of 2 million rupees will increase from 4% to 10% by 2020, amounting to 660,000 families. The number of households with incomes from 1-2 million rupees is also estimated to increase from 4% to 15% by 2020.
Others include Jains, Sikhs & Parsis
Religion in Mumbai
Mumb 34 Banganga_Tank_and_Walkeshwar_Temple,_Bombay,_c._1855
Banganga Tank and Walkeshwar Temple Bombay c.1855
Religion Percent
Hinduism 67.39%
Islam 18.56%
Buddhism 5.22%
Christianity 4.2%
Others   4.63%
mumb 35 Haji-Ali-1
Islams Haji-Ali
The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindus (67.39%), Muslims (18.56%),Buddhists (5.22%), Jains (3.99%), Christians (4.2%), Sikhs (0.58%), with Parsisand Jews making up the rest of the population. The linguistic/ethnic demographics are: Maharashtrians (42%), Gujaratis (19%), with the rest hailing from other parts of India.

Native Christians include East Indian (ethnic group) Catholics who were converted by the Portuguese, during the 18th & 19th century. The city also has a small native Bene Israeli Jewish community, who migrated from thePersian Gulf or Yemen, probably 1600 years ago. Mumbai is also home to the largest population of Parsi Zoroastrians in the world, numbering about 80,000. Parsis migrated to India from Pars (Persia/Iran) following the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century AD. The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the Dawoodi Bohras, Ismaili Khojas, and Konkani Muslims.
mumb 28 Asiatic_Society_library
This is one of the heritage cites; the oldest public libraries in the city.
Mumbai’s culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music and theatres. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. Mumbai’s history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, religions and cuisines coexisting in the city. This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period.
Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema —Dadasaheb Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies—and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century. Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies. The Mumbai International Film Festival and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai. Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed during the British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has developed a thriving “theatre movement” tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English and other regional languages.
Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries. The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history.
Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden. The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie, Aravind Adiga. Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of Mumbai based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar, and Gangadhar Gadgil, and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award, a literary honour bestowed by India’s National Academy of Letters.
Mumbai residents celebrate both Western and Indian festivals. Diwali, Holi, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Dussera, Moharram,Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films. A week long annual fair known as Bandra Fair, starting on the following Sunday after 8 September, is celebrated by people of all faiths, to commemorate theNativity of Mary, mother of Jesus, on 8 September.
The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai. The Elephanta Festival—celebrated every February on the Elephanta Islands—is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music and attracts performers from across the country. Public holidays specific to the city and the state include Maharashtra Day on 1 May, to celebrate the formation of Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960, and Gudi Padwa which is the New Year’s Day for Marathi people.
mumb 29 Times_of_India_Building
The Times of India’s first office is opposite the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus where it was founded.
Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city and the top Marathi language newspapers are Maharashtra Times, Navakaal, Lokmat, Loksatta, Mumbai Chaufer,Saamana and Sakaal. Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal,Grihashobhika, Lokrajya, Lokprabha & Chitralekha. Popular English language newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include The Times of India, Mid-day,Hindustan Times, DNA India, and The Indian Express. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages. Mumbai is home to Asia’s oldest newspaper, Bombay Samachar, which has been published in Gujarati since 1822. Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832.
Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households.
The wide range of cable channels available includes Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star Pravah, Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri (All Marathi channels), news channels such as Star Majha, Lokmat IBN, Zee 24 Taas, sports channels like ESPN, Star Sports, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony Zee TV and STAR Plus. News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai. Zing a popular Bollywood gossip channel is also based out of Mumbai. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs. Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mumbai include Dish TV and Sky by Tata.
There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on theAM band. Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio providers such as WorldSpace, Sirius and XM. The Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the Union Government in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai due to competition from its sister technologyDirect-to-Home (DTH) transmission service.
Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year. The name Bollywood is a blend of Bombay and Hollywood. The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood’s popularity overseas. This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances such as special effects and animation. Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets. The city also hosts the Marathi film industry which has seen increased popularity in recent years, and TV production companies.

mumb 30 Rajabai_Clock_Tower,_Mumbai_(31_August_2008)
Rajabai Clock Tower at theUniversity of Mumbai
Schools in Mumbai are either “municipal schools” (run by the BMC) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The schools are affiliated either with the Maharashtra State Board (MSBSHSE), The all-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) or the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards. ] Marathi or English is the usual language of instruction. The government run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools.
Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enroll for two years injunior college, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine. Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates.
The Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), University Institute of Chemical Technology (UICT) which are India’s premier engineering and technology schools, and SNDT Women’s University are the other autonomous universities in Mumbai. Grant Medical College established in 1845 and Seth G.S. Medical College are the leading medical institutes affiliated with Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals and KEM Hospital respectively. Mumbai is also home to National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research and several other management schools. Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai. The Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai’s oldest art institution.
Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay.
mumb 31 Brabourne
Brabourne Stadium, one of the oldest cricket stadiums in the country

Cricket is more popular than any other sport in the city. Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to as gully cricket) are played everywhere. Mumbai is also home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and Indian Premier League(IPL). The Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy and has won 40 titles, the most by any team. The city is also represented by the Mumbai Indians in theIndian Premier League. The city has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium. The first cricket test match in India was played in Mumbai at Bombay Gymkhana. The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far is the final of the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which was played at the Wankhede Stadium. Mumbai and London are the only two cities to have hosted both a World Cup final and the final of an ICC Champions Trophy which was played at the Brabourne Stadium in2006.
Football is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the EnglishPremier League being followed widely. In the I-League (matches in the city are played at the Cooperage Ground), the city is represented by three teams, Mumbai FC, Mahindra United and Air-India. Mumbai is home to the Mumbai Marines and Mumbai Magicians in the World Series Hockey and Hockey India League respectively . When theElite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Mumbai was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season. Named the Mumbai Gladiators, the team’s first season was played in Pune in late 2012, and it is Mumbai’s first professional American football franchise.
mumb 32 Bombay18
Built in 1883, Mahalaxmi Racecourse was created out of a marshy land known as Mahalakshmi Flats.
Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. Mcdowell’s Derby is also held in February at the Turf Club in Mumbai. In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship. and the Force India F1 team car was unveiled in the city, in 2008. The city is planning to build its own F1 track and various sites in the city were being chalked out, of which the authorities have planned to zero down on Marve-Malad or Panvel-Kalyan land. If approved, the track will be clubbed with a theme park and will spread over 400 to 500 acres (202 ha). In 2004, the annual Mumbai Marathon was established as a part of “The Greatest Race on Earth”. Mumbai has also played host to the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007.

mumb 43 , 2011
Entering India from the sea

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Portraits of Moneyed Classes Put a Face on India’s Economic Growth

In The Seven Percent project, Reed Young photographed India’s growing elite to show that the country is more varied economically than has been traditionally documented in the media.

India 1
Karanvir Singh Sibia, “Sunny” to his friends, originally from Singur, lives in Chandigarh with his wife, son, and daughter-in-law. He started his first stud farm in the 1980s on his family’s land in Jind and recently opened a second in Roper. Eight years ago, after his son came back from Australia, where he studied and lived for seven years, they started a real estate development company operating in Chandgarh and surrounding areas.

“One would like to see more industry growth because we are seeing a lot of our younger generations migrating to other countries, so if there are better job opportunities back home, I’m sure they would rather stay back and try and avail of some of the benefits that would come about.”
“Whenever I saw pictures of India, they were images of impoverished people in the streets,” says Young. “I was curious to see this other side that everyone was talking about.”

India 2
Gaj Singh is the son of the last nobleman of Alsisa, Rajasthan. Born in Jaipur, he was in the army before launching his hotel business. He now owns three hotels in Rajasthan, two of which are his family residences converted into heritage accommodations. He is married, has two sons, and lives in Alsisa Haveli, his hotel in Jaipur.

“We had so many people working around us […] but gradually it faded and by the time I was passing out of school in 1976, we didn’t have many people working for us, but again, with this present business […] the bygone era has come back.”
india 3
Tegvir Singh Sibia, “Gogi,” son of ex-minister of state Gurbaksh Singh Sibia, is an agriculturist and owner of a mechanised farm. Twice president of the Chandigarh golf club, he lives with his son and daughter and, with his brother “Sunny,” is on the board of directors of two educational institution in his native Singur.

“We were pioneers in whatever we did, in agriculture especially, we started the first seed business in India, and we were very happy with that […] We drove ourselves to do it [machine-based agriculture], and it was a time of chang. And if we didn’t change, primitive farming was not going to pay, so we had to change. There was no question.”

Gunjan Gupta is a furniture designer. Originally from Bombay, she studied in London and now runs an environmentally green design studio and production unit in Gurgaon, where she lives with her husband and two daughters.

india 4
“I think one of the challenges that I find as a parent in the India of today, which is modernising at such a crazy pace, is this growing up in excess. Our kids are growing up with just too much: too much access, too much aspiration. […] So in that sense I feel that it’s the whole idea of value that’s really important, and as a parent I really worry about that. You can’t compare India at the time when we were growing up and India today; you can’t say it’s the same country. […] We were just totally living in isolation […]. When we used to travel, I remember collecting Coke cans […] because none of that stuff was available here.”
“We had so many people working around us […] but gradually it faded and by the time I was passing out of school in 1976, we didn’t have many people working for us, but again, with this present business […] the bygone era has come back.”
His title is a nod to India’s 7 percent GDP growth rate in 2011, which is when he made the photos. His subjects are businessmen, professionals, and ex-nobility. They’re photographed in cravats and blazers and posed beside horses, pools, and vintage cars. Designer furniture and designer pets abound.

Percy Billimoria is one of India’s most successful corporate lawyers. Originally from Bombay, he has been living in Delhi for over twenty years. He lives in a farmhouse in South Delhi.
india 6
“I grew up in an India which suffered from a miscarried socialism. I am a free market proponent, […] I believe that the market sorts itself out; it’s not to say that there’s nothing wrong with the way free markets work. It’s not a perfect model, but ultimately market forces are the best solution to the problems that market forces themselves create.”
Historically, social status in India has been tied to the country’s caste system, which organizes people, particularly Hindu, into a hierarchy of groups. But the current Indian constitution bans discrimination on the basis of caste, and the Indian government has instituted affirmative action programs to help lower classes gain political, social, and financial success.

India 7
Sukhwant Singh is a steel industrialist. He owns a plant on the outskirts of Indore and manages two Tata Steel factories, in Baroda and Sri Lanka. Once leading a much bigger industry, he had to reduce the size of his business due to an infrastructure-generated crisis, but is now again in a growing phase.
India 8
Colonel Kuldeep Singh Garcha, a businessman, is a retired national polo player and army officer. Originally from Punjab, he lives with his wife in Jaipur. His son, also a polo player and a businessman, lives in Singapore.

“You know there are two things in life, ambition and desire. I let my desires run wild, because whatever I achieved I feel happy about […]. But if you are ambitious and from 0 to 10 you reach 8, you still have a negativity [because] you haven’t got that 10. So I’m not ambitious. I desire, I desire the stars and if I fall short I’ll probably land at the moon.”

india 9
Rohan Jetley is a businessman. Born in Delhi, he lived with his family in Bombay and Singapore before moving back to the capital city. After graduating in Hawaii and working for Merrill Lynch, he moved back to India and manages T.G.I.F. India, one of the family businesses.
“Before, unless you were educated and unless you came from a certain background and you had certain contacts, there were very little chances to make it. Today, because of the corporate structure that exists, it’s all merit-based, so if you work hard enough and you’re a diligent and intelligent person, you inevitably make it to where you want to go.”
“The disparity is so visible, it’s so obvious. How does it look if I’m driving a Mercedes and another guy doesn’t even have a bicycle?”

india 10
Bombay-born Kavita Sanghi, wife of late industrialist and businessman Satish Sanghi, lives in Indore in a house designed by Eckart Muthesius, which originally served as the servant quarters for the maharaja’s palace. She runs a textile business and, together with her son who owns a home next door, they own nine male pedigree dogs.
“It was me who started with the textile business since my children had grown up and […] I had all the time to myself, so I told him [my husband] I want to start this. He didn’t like it in the beginning because most women of India’s upper class at that time weren’t open to work, [but] I said ‘but I don’t like sitting with ladies all day and just talking about household affairs, I’d like to start designing.'[…] So then he agreed to it and supported me right through.”

india 11
Dibang, originally from the northeastern state of Arunanchal Pradesh, is a well-known TV journalist and news anchor. He lives in South Delhi.
“I think traditionally in India money is supposed to be bad. If you’re rich that means you’ve done something wrong, so even if you’re rich you would never say I’m rich, […] you would always underplay it. It’s a strange thing that happens here.”
“Making money is very important, but more important is how you make money, especially in this society. If I don’t have the modesty, if I don’t have the sensitivity to understand people, I’m a criminal.”

india 12
Karan Talwar is a businessman from Delhi running one of his family enterprises dealing in automotive parts, the electronic industry, and mining. After the completion of his business degree in London, he moved back to Delhi, where he built an apartment for himself in his family home.
“I’ve already seen salary hikes in the workers’ wages, the minimum wage in the state we operate in keeps jumping up. [But the] monthly wage of an Indian worker is so different from an American worker, that gap is so wide that it’s going to take a couple of decades to catch up, and [even then] it won’t, because the cost of living in the U.S. is increasing too. It’s a cycle, because if our cost increases [and] they are buying the same products from us, we pass those increases to them, and their cost of living is going to up as well, so that gap is always going to remain.”

Young’s impression is that it remains difficult to move beyond and outside any given caste. Some of his subjects, however, don’t see things as absolute.
“Some thought India had become a country where if you worked hard, you could be successful,” Young says.

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Daughter of an astrophysicist, Nikku Guron is an interior designer from Chandigarh. She runs her own studio, is married, and has a daughter.
“For example, when we were kids it’s not like we had A/C in all the rooms. Now […] these kids are not used to it; they can’t even dream of a room without an A/C. When you become more comfortable, you just thank god […] I think we’re really privileged that god has been so kind, […] because we’ve seen those days and the way things have changed.”

It was often difficult to get access to his subjects because only a small number of well-off Indians wanted to discuss their growing wealth.

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Sheel Chandra, together with his late twin brother, started the one of the biggest pashmina, wool, and carpet businesses in the country. He was born in Shimla (Himachal Pradesh) and lives in South Delhi. He’s married and has four children. His brother, who married his wife’s twin sister, has three.
“The distribution of money is not good in India. Still, one third of the people in India live on one dollar a day, maybe more than one third. Some people have so much money that 5 percent of the people are the richest people in the world, 10 percent are very very rich, 20 percent are still very rich. We would be one of those 20 percent, I think.”

“Generally, people who’ve had affluence for generations are much quieter about their fortune,” he says. “The new wealthy are the ones who drive race cars and wear flashy clothes. The old wealthy are far more understated in the way they presented themselves.”
To get his foot in the door, Young teamed up with writer Annalisa Merelli, who had lived in New Delhi for years and was connected enough to snag a dinner invite to a moneyed friend of a friend’s house.
“They were so open, and after that evening they introduced us to other people who were similar,” says Young. “Most of my personal stories have worked like this, every person I meet, I ask them for two new people who may be right for the story. The snowball effect is usually very fruitful.”

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Rajat Sodhi is an architect. Born in Delhi, he studied and worked for several architecture firms in the U.K. and Europe for 10 years before returning to India to start his own independent practice. He lives in South Delhi with his sister, an art curator.
“The service class who does work for the upper class, it’s only a matter of time till they realize how badly they are being exploited and how badly they are being economically manipulated. […] This is a structure that is somehow geared towards breaking down in one way or the other, that may be in the form of a social revolution or of something more violent, or it could be something that kind of gradually changes.”

Merelli conducted the interviews and wrote the text for The Seven Percent. Young also worked with photographer Michael de Pasquale who took pictures of empty dinner plates left behind by the people in the photos. Food scarcity can be an issue in parts of India, so the plates at meals of the affluent are telling. When Young’s portraits are shown, they’re hung as diptychs along side the food photos.
Since Young started the project, India’s economy has slowed down. The growth rate was 5.0 percent for the 2012–13 fiscal year, and the Indian government says it should have a growth rate of 6.1 percent to 6.7 percent for the year 2013-14. In July, India’s currency, the rupee, also fell to a record low.
A recent spat between two Indian-born Ivy League economists has hit recent headlines, and the debate revolves around whether government spending on social programs or extended freedom to private investment will bring about the quickest arrest in India’s economic slowdown.

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Ganesh Singh-Jhabua, a member of the former royal family of Indore, is a businessman. He has two daughters, both of whom moved away from their hometown after marriage. He lives in a property just outside the center of Indore with his wife and their Great Dane.
“It was very difficult for a person with my background to compromise that old royal style which I’d learned when I was a kid […] to start something new, a business, [something] which my forefathers had never done. […] In my grandfather’s times a businessman was not [considered] a moral person – that’s what I’d learned all my life, and from there to get down and do the same thing [business] was difficult in the beginning. Then I started enjoying the work.”

Young says opinions about how to keep the country moving forward varied amongst the subjects he photographed. Only some thought committed investment in social programs was essential.

“Of the 15 people we interviewed, probably eight of them said that education for the poor would be the most important change needed to reduce the rate of poverty in India,” he says.


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George Bernard Shaw

Shaw a 1936

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950) was an Irish playwright and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. Although his first profitable writing wasmusic and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many highly articulate pieces ofjournalism, his main talent was for drama, and he wrote more than 60 plays. He was also an essayist, novelist and short story writer. Nearly all his writings address prevailing social problems, but have a vein of comedy which makes their stark themes more palatable. Issues which engaged Shaw’s attention included education, marriage, religion, government, health care, and class privilege.
He was most angered by what he perceived as the exploitation of the working class. An ardent socialist, Shaw wrote many brochures and speeches for the Fabian Society. He became an accomplished orator in the furtherance of its causes, which included gaining equal rights for men and women, alleviating abuses of the working class, rescinding private ownership of productive land, and promoting healthy lifestyles. For a short time he was active in local politics, serving on the London County Council.
In 1898, Shaw married Charlotte Payne-Townshend, a fellow Fabian, whom he survived. They settled in Ayot St Lawrence in a house now called Shaw’s Corner. Shaw died there, aged 94, from chronic problems exacerbated by injuries he incurred by falling from a ladder.
He is the only person to have been awarded both a Nobel Prize in Literature (1925) and anOscar (1938), for his contributions to literature and for his work on the film Pygmalion(adaptation of his play of the same name), respectively. Shaw wanted to refuse his Nobel Prize outright because he had no desire for public honours, but accepted it at his wife’s behest: she considered it a tribute to Ireland. He did reject the monetary award, requesting it be used to finance translation of fellow playwright August Strindberg’s works from Swedish to English.

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Shaw’s birthplace, Dublin
Early years and family[edit source | editbeta]
George Bernard Shaw was born in Synge Street, Dublin, on 26 July 1856 to George Carr Shaw (1814–85), an unsuccessful grain merchant and sometime civil servant, and Lucinda Elizabeth Shaw, née Gurly (1830–1913), a professional singer. He had two sisters, Lucinda Frances (1853–1920), a singer of musical comedy and light opera, and Elinor Agnes (1855–76).
Education[edit source | editbeta]
Shaw briefly attended the Wesley College, Dublin, a grammar school operated by theMethodist Church in Ireland, before moving to a private school near Dalkey and then transferring to Dublin’s Central Model School. He ended his formal education at the Dublin English Scientific and Commercial Day School. He harboured a lifelong animosity toward schools and teachers, saying, “Schools and schoolmasters, as we have them today, are not popular as places of education and teachers, but rather prisons and turnkeys in which children are kept to prevent them disturbing and chaperoning their parents.” In the astringent prologue to Cashel Byron’s Profession young Byron’s educational experience is a fictionalized description of Shaw’s own schooldays. Later, he painstakingly detailed the reasons for his aversion to formal education in his Treatise on Parents and Children. In brief, he considered the standardized curricula useless, deadening to the spirit and stifling to the intellect. He particularly deplored the use of corporal punishment, which was prevalent in his time.
When his mother left home and followed her voice teacher, George Vandeleur Lee, to London, Shaw was almost sixteen years old. His sisters accompanied their mother but Shaw remained in Dublin with his father, first as a reluctant pupil, then as a clerk in an estate office. He worked efficiently, albeit discontentedly, for several years. In 1876, Shaw joined his mother’s London household. She, Vandeleur Lee, and his sister Lucy, provided him with a pound a week while he frequented public libraries and the British Museumreading room where he studied earnestly and began writing novels. He earned his allowance by ghostwriting Vandeleur Lee’s music column, which appeared in the London Hornet. His novels were rejected, however, so his literary earnings remained negligible until 1885, when he became self-supporting as a critic of the arts.
Personal life

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The front of Shaw’s Corner as it stands today
Influenced by his reading, he became a dedicated socialist and a charter member of theFabian Society, a middle class organization established in 1884 to promote the gradual spread of socialism by peaceful means. In the course of his political activities he metCharlotte Payne-Townshend, an Irish heiress and fellow Fabian; they married in 1898. The marriage was never consummated, at Charlotte’s insistence, though he had a number of affairs with married women.
In 1906 the Shaws moved into a house, now called Shaw’s Corner, in Ayot St. Lawrence, a small village in Hertfordshire, England; it was to be their home for the remainder of their lives, although they also maintained a residence at 29 Fitzroy Square in London.
Political activism
Shaw declined to stand as an MP, but in 1897 he was elected as a local councillor to theLondon County Council as a Progressive.
Shaw’s plays were first performed in the 1890s. By the end of the decade he was an established playwright. He wrote sixty-three plays and his output as novelist, critic, pamphleteer, essayist and private correspondent was prodigious. He is known to have written more than 250,000 letters. Along with Fabian Society members Sidney andBeatrice Webb and Graham Wallas, Shaw founded the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1895 with funding provided by private philanthropy, including a bequest of £20,000 from Henry Hunt Hutchinson to the Fabian Society. One of the libraries at the LSE is named in Shaw’s honour; it contains collections of his papers and photographs. Shaw helped to found the left-wing magazineNew Statesman in 1913 with the Webbs and other prominent members of the Fabian Society.
Final years
During his later years, Shaw enjoyed attending to the grounds at Shaw’s Corner. At 91 he joined the Interplanetary Society for the last three years of his life. He died at the age of 94, of renal failure precipitated by injuries incurred by falling while pruning a tree. His ashes, mixed with those of his wife, Charlotte Payne-Townshend, were scattered along footpaths and around the statue of Saint Joan in their garden.
The International Shaw Society provides a detailed chronological listing of Shaw’s writings. See also George Bernard Shaw, Unity Theatre.

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Shaw around 1900.
Shaw became a critic of the arts when, sponsored by William Archer, he joined the reviewing staff of the Pall Mall Gazette in 1885. There he wrote under the pseudonym “Corno di Bassetto” (“basset horn”)—chosen because it sounded European and nobody knew what acorno di bassetto was. In a miscellany of other periodicals, including Dramatic Review (1885–86), Our Corner (1885–86), and the Pall Mall Gazette (1885–88) his byline was “GBS”. From 1895 to 1898, Shaw was the drama critic for his friend Frank Harris’s Saturday Review, in which position he campaigned brilliantly to displace the artificialities and hypocrisies of the Victorian stage with a theatre of actuality and thought. His earnings as a critic made him self-supporting as an author and his articles for the Saturday Review made his name well-known.
George Bernard Shaw was highly critical of productions of Shakespeare, and specifically denounced the dramatic practice of editing Shakespeare’s plays, whose scenes tended to be cut in order to create “acting versions”. He notably held famous 19th-century actor Sir Henry Irving in contempt for this practice, as he expressed in one of his reviews:
“In a true republic of art, Sir Henry Irving would ere this have expiated his acting versions on the scaffold. He does not merely cut plays; he disembowels them. In Cymbeline he has quite surpassed himself by extirpating the antiphonal third verse of the famous dirge. A man who would do that would do anything –cut the coda out of the first movement of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, or shorten one of Velázquez’s Philips into a kitcat to make it fit over his drawing room mantelpiece.”
Shavian scholar John F. Matthews credits him, as a result, with the disappearance of the two-hundred-year-old tradition of editing Shakespeare into “acting versions”.[25]

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Shaw in 1909.

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Shaw photographed by the press.
He had a very high regard for both Irish stage actor Barry Sullivan’s and Johnston Forbes-Robertson’s Hamlets, but despised John Barrymore’s. Barrymore invited him to see a performance of his celebrated Hamlet, and Shaw graciously accepted, but wrote Barrymore a withering letter in which he all but tore the performance to shreds. Even worse, Shaw had seen the play in the company of Barrymore’s then wife, but did not dare voice his true feelings about the performance aloud to her.
Much of Shaw’s music criticism, ranging from short comments to the book-length essay The Perfect Wagnerite, extols the work of the German composer Richard Wagner. Wagner worked 25 years composing Der Ring des Nibelungen, a massive four-part musical dramatization drawn from the Teutonic mythology of gods, giants, dwarves and Rhine maidens; Shaw considered it a work of genius and reviewed it in detail. Beyond the music, he saw it as an allegory of social evolution where workers, driven by “the invisible whip of hunger”, seek freedom from their wealthy masters. Wagner did have socialistic sympathies, as Shaw carefully points out, but made no such claim about his opus. Conversely, Shaw disparaged Brahms, deriding A German Requiem by saying “it could only have come from the establishment of a first-class undertaker”. Although he found Brahms lacking in intellect, he praised his musicality, saying “…nobody can listen to Brahms’ natural utterance of the richest absolute music, especially in his chamber compositions, without rejoicing in his natural gift”. In the 1920s, he recanted, calling his earlier animosity towards Brahms “my only mistake”. Shaw’s writings about music gained great popularity because they were understandable to the average well-read audience member of the day, thus contrasting starkly with the dourly pretentious pedantry of most critiques in that era. All of his music critiques have been collected in Shaw’s Music. As a drama critic for the Saturday Review, a post he held from 1895 to 1898, Shaw championed Henrik Ibsen whose realistic plays scandalized the Victorian public. His influential Quintessence of Ibsenism was written in 1891.
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My method is to take the utmost trouble to find the right thing to say, and then to say it with the utmost levity.

Shaw wrote five unsuccessful novels at the start of his career between 1879 and 1883. Eventually all were published.
The first to be printed was Cashel Byron’s Profession (1886), which was written in 1882. Its eponymous character, Cashel, a rebellious schoolboy with an unsympathetic mother, runs away to Australia where he becomes a famed prizefighter. He returns to England for a boxing match, and falls in love with erudite and wealthy Lydia Carew. Lydia, drawn by sheer animal magnetism, eventually consents to marry despite the disparity of their social positions. This breach of propriety is nullified by the unpresaged discovery that Cashel is of noble lineage and heir to a fortune comparable to Lydia’s. With those barriers to happiness removed, the couple settles down to prosaic family life with Lydia dominant; Cashel attains a seat in Parliament. In this novel Shaw first expresses his conviction that productive land and all other natural resources should belong to everyone in common, rather than being owned and exploited privately. The book was written in the year when Shaw first heard the lectures of Henry Georgewho advocated such reforms.

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Shaw in 1925, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
Written in 1883, An Unsocial Socialist was published in 1887. The tale begins with a hilarious description of student antics at a girl’s school then changes focus to a seemingly uncouth laborer who, it soon develops, is really a wealthy gentleman in hiding from his overly affectionate wife. He needs the freedom gained by matrimonial truancy to promote the socialistic cause, to which he is an active convert. Once the subject of socialism emerges, it dominates the story, allowing only space enough in the final chapters to excoriate the idle upper class and allow the erstwhile schoolgirls, in their earliest maturity, to marry suitably.
Love Among the Artists was published in the United States in 1900 and in England in 1914, but it was written in 1881. In the ambiance of chit-chat and frivolity among members of Victorian polite society a youthful Shaw describes his views on the arts, romantic love and the practicalities of matrimony. Dilettantes, he thinks, can love and settle down to marriage, but artists with real genius are too consumed by their work to fit that pattern. The dominant figure in the novel is Owen Jack, a musical genius, somewhat mad and quite bereft of social graces. From an abysmal beginning he rises to great fame and is lionized by socialites despite his unremitting crudity.
The Irrational Knot was written in 1880 and published in 1905. Within a framework of leisure class preoccupations and frivolities Shaw disdains hereditary status and proclaims the nobility of workers. Marriage, as the knot in question, is exemplified by the union of Marian Lind, a lady of the upper class, to Edward Conolly, always a workman but now a magnate, thanks to his invention of an electric motor that makes steam engines obsolete. The marriage soon deteriorates, primarily because Marian fails to rise above the preconceptions and limitations of her social class and is, therefore, unable to share her husband’s interests. Eventually she runs away with a man who is her social peer, but he proves himself a scoundrel and abandons her in desperate circumstances. Her husband rescues her and offers to take her back, but she pridefully refuses, convinced she is unworthy and certain that she faces life as a pariah to her family and friends. The preface, written when Shaw was 49, expresses gratitude to his parents for their support during the lean years while he learned to write and includes details of his early life in London.

Shaw 11 My specialty is being right when other people are wrong.
My specialty is being right when other people are wrong

Shaw’s first novel, Immaturity, was written in 1879 but was the last one to be printed in 1931. It relates tepid romances, minor misfortunes and subdued successes in the developing career of Robert Smith, an energetic young Londoner and outspoken agnostic. Condemnation of alcoholic behaviour is the prime message in the book, and derives from Shaw’s familial memories. This is made clear in the books’s preface, which was written by the mature Shaw at the time of its belated publication. The preface is a valuable resource because it provides autobiographical details not otherwise available.
Short stories

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Shaw writing in a notebook at the time of first production of his play Pygmalion.
A collection of Shaw’s short stories, The Black Girl in Search of God and Some Lesser Tales, was published in 1934. The Black Girl, an enthusiastic convert to Christianity, goes searching for God. In the story, written as an allegory, somewhat reminiscent of Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress, Shaw uses her adventures to expose flaws and fallacies in the religions of the world. At the story’s happy ending, the Black Girl quits her searchings in favour of rearing a family with the aid of a red-haired Irishman who has no metaphysical inclination.
One of the Lesser Tales is The Miraculous Revenge (1885), which relates the misadventures of an alcoholic investigator while he probes the mystery of a graveyard—full of saintly corpses—that migrates across a stream to escape association with the body of a newly buried sinner.
The texts of plays by Shaw mentioned in this section, with the dates when they were written and first performed can be found in Complete Plays and Prefaces. Shaw began working on his first play destined for production, Widowers’ Houses, in 1885 in collaboration with critic William Archer, who supplied the structure. Archer decided that Shaw could not write a play, so the project was abandoned. Years later, Shaw tried again and, in 1892, completed the play without collaboration. Widowers’ Houses, a scathing attack on slumlords, was first performed at London’s Royalty Theatre on 9 December 1892. Shaw would later call it one of his worst works, but he had found his medium. His first significant financial success as a playwright came from Richard Mansfield’s American production of The Devil’s Disciple (1897). He went on to write 63 plays, most of them full-length.
Often his plays succeeded in the United States and Germany before they did in London. Although major London productions of many of his earlier pieces were delayed for years, they are still being performed there. Examples include Mrs. Warren’s Profession (1893), Arms and the Man (1894), Candida (1894) and You Never Can Tell (1897).
Shaw’s plays, like those of Oscar Wilde, contained incisive humour, which was exceptional among playwrights of the Victorian era; both authors are remembered for their comedy. However, Shaw’s wittiness should not obscure his important role in revolutionizing British drama. In the Victorian Era, the London stage had been regarded as a place for frothy, sentimental entertainment. Shaw made it a forum for considering moral, political and economic issues, possibly his most lasting and important contribution to dramatic art. In this, he considered himself indebted to Henrik Ibsen, who pioneered modern realistic drama, meaning drama designed to heighten awareness of some important social issue. Significantly, Widowers’ Houses — an example of the realistic genre — was completed after William Archer, Shaw’s friend, had translated some of Ibsen’s plays to English and Shaw had written The Quintessence of Ibsenism.
As Shaw’s experience and popularity increased, his plays and prefaces became more voluble about reforms he advocated, without diminishing their success as entertainments. Such works, including Caesar and Cleopatra (1898), Man and Superman (1903), Major Barbara (1905) and The Doctor’s Dilemma (1906), display Shaw’s matured views, for he was approaching 50 when he wrote them. From 1904 to 1907, several of his plays had their London premieres in notable productions at the Court Theatre, managed by Harley Granville-Barker and J. E. Vedrenne. The first of his new plays to be performed at the Court Theatre, John Bull’s Other Island (1904), while not especially popular today, made his reputation in London when King Edward VII laughed so hard during a command performance that he broke his chair.
By the 1910s, Shaw was a well-established playwright. New works such as Fanny’s First Play (1911) and Pygmalion (1912), had long runs in front of large London audiences. Shaw had permitted a musical adaptation of Arms and the Man (1894) called The Chocolate Soldier (1908), but he had a low opinion of German operetta. He insisted that none of his dialogue be used, and that all the character names be changed, although the operetta actually follows Shaw’s plot quite closely, in particular preserving its anti-war message. The work proved very popular and would have made Shaw rich had he not waived his royalties, but he detested it and for the rest of his life forbade musicalization of his work, including a proposed Franz Lehár operetta based on Pygmalion. Several of his plays formed the basis of musicals after his death—most famously the musical My Fair Lady—it is officially adapted from the screenplay of the film version ofPygmalion rather than the original stage play (keeping the film’s ending), and librettist Alan Jay Lerner kept generous chunks of Shaw’s dialogue, and the characters’ names, unchanged.
Shaw’s outlook was changed by World War I, which he uncompromisingly opposed despite incurring outrage from the public as well as from many friends. His first full-length piece, presented after the War, written mostly during it, was Heartbreak House (1919). A new Shaw had emerged—the wit remained, but his faith in humanity had dwindled. In the preface to Heartbreak House he said:
It is said that every people has the Government it deserves. It is more to the point that every Government has the electorate it deserves; for the orators of the front bench can edify or debauch an ignorant electorate at will. Thus our democracy moves in a vicious circle of reciprocal worthiness and unworthiness.

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The movable hut in the garden of Shaw’s Corner, where Shaw wrote most of his works after 1906, including Pygmalion.
Shaw had previously supported gradual democratic change toward socialism, but now he saw more hope in government by benign strong men. This sometimes made him oblivious to the dangers of dictatorships. Near his life’s end that hope failed him too. In the first act of Buoyant Billions (1946–48), his last full-length play, his protagonist asks:
Why appeal to the mob when ninety five per cent of them do not understand politics, and can do nothing but mischief without leaders? And what sort of leaders do they vote for? For Titus Oates and Lord George Gordon with their Popish plots, for Hitlers who call on them to exterminate Jews, for Mussolinis who rally them to nationalist dreams of glory and empire in which all foreigners are enemies to be subjugated.
In 1921, Shaw completed Back to Methuselah, his “Metabiological Pentateuch”. The massive, five-play work starts in the Garden of Eden and ends thousands of years in the future; it showcases Shaw’s postulate that a “Life Force” directs evolution toward ultimate perfection by trial and error. Shaw proclaimed the play a masterpiece, but many critics disagreed. The theme of a benign force directing evolution reappears in Geneva (1938), wherein Shaw maintains humans must develop longer lifespans in order to acquire the wisdom needed for self-government.
Methuselah was followed by Saint Joan (1923), which is generally considered to be one of his better works. Shaw had long considered writing about Joan of Arc, and her canonization in 1920 supplied a strong incentive. The play was an international success, and is believed to have led to his Nobel Prize in Literature. The citation praised his work as “…marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty”. At this time Prime Minister David Lloyd George was considering recommending to the King Shaw’s admission to the Order of Merit, but the place was instead given to J. M. Barrie. Shaw rejected a knighthood. It was not until 1946 that the government of the day arranged for an informal offer of the Order of Merit to be made: Shaw declined, replying that “merit” in authorship could only be determined by the posthumous verdict of history.
He wrote plays for the rest of his life, but very few of them are as notable—or as often revived—as his earlier work. The Apple Cart (1929) was probably his most popular work of this era. Later full-length plays like Too True to Be Good (1931), On the Rocks (1933), The Millionairess (1935), and Geneva (1938) have been seen as marking a decline. His last significant play, In Good King Charles Golden Days has, according to St. John Ervine, passages that are equal to Shaw’s major works.
Shaw’s published plays come with lengthy prefaces. These tend to be more about Shaw’s opinions on the issues addressed by the plays than about the plays themselves. Often his prefaces are longer than the plays they introduce. For example, the Penguin Books edition of his one-act The Shewing-up Of Blanco Posnet (1909) has a 67-page preface for the 29-page playscript.

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I hear you say “Why?” Always “Why?” You see things; and you say “Why?” But I dream things that never were; and I say “Why not?”
In a letter to Henry James dated 17 January 1909, Shaw said,
I, as a Socialist, have had to preach, as much as anyone, the enormous power of the environment. We can change it; we must change it; there is absolutely no other sense in life than the task of changing it. What is the use of writing plays, what is the use of writing anything, if there is not a will which finally moulds chaos itself into a race of gods.
Thus he viewed writing as a way to further his humanitarian and political agenda. His works were very popular because of their comedic content, but the public tended to disregard his messages and enjoy his work as pure entertainment. He was acutely aware of that. His preface to Heartbreak House (1919) attributes its rejection to the need of post-World War I audiences for frivolities, after four long years of grim privation, more than to their inborn distaste of instruction. His crusading nature led him to adopt and tenaciously hold a variety of causes, which he furthered with fierce intensity, heedless of opposition and ridicule. For example, Common Sense about the War (1914) lays out Shaw’s strong objections at the onset of World War I. His stance ran counter to public sentiment and cost him dearly at the box-office, but he never compromised.
Shaw joined in the public opposition to vaccination against smallpox, calling it “a peculiarly filthy piece of witchcraft”, despite having nearly died from the disease in 1881. In the preface to Doctor’s Dilemma he made it plain he regarded traditional medical treatment as dangerous quackery that should be replaced with sound public sanitation, good personal hygiene and diets devoid of meat. Shaw became a vegetarian when he was twenty-five, after hearing a lecture by H.F. Lester. In 1901, remembering the experience, he said “I was a cannibal for twenty-five years. For the rest I have been a vegetarian.” As a staunch vegetarian, he was a firm anti-vivisectionist and antagonistic to cruel sports for the remainder of his life. The belief in the immorality of eating animals was one of the Fabian causes near his heart and is frequently a topic in his plays and prefaces. His position, succinctly stated, was “A man of my spiritual intensity does not eat corpses.”
As well as plays and prefaces, Shaw wrote long political treatises, such as Fabian Essays in Socialism (1889), and The Intelligent Woman’s Guide to Socialism and Capitalism (1912), a 495-page book detailing all aspects of socialistic theory as Shaw interpreted it. Excerpts of the latter were republished in 1928 as Socialism and Liberty, Late in his life he wrote another guide to political issues,Everybody’s Political What’s What (1944).
Correspondence and friends
Shaw corresponded with an array of people, many of them well-known. His letters to and from Mrs. Patrick Campbell were adapted for the stage by Jerome Kilty as Dear Liar: A Comedy of Letters, as was his correspondence with the poet Lord Alfred ‘Bosie’ Douglas(the intimate friend of Oscar Wilde), into the drama Bernard and Bosie: A Most Unlikely Friendship by Anthony Wynn. His letters to the prominent actress, Ellen Terry, to the boxer Gene Tunney, and to H.G. Wells, have also been published. Eventually the volume of his correspondence became insupportable, as can be inferred from apologetic letters written by assistants. Shaw campaigned against the executions of the rebel leaders of the Easter Rising, and he became a personal friend of the Cork-born IRA leader Michael Collins, whom he invited to his home for dinner while Collins was negotiating the Anglo-Irish Treaty with Lloyd George in London. After Collins’s assassination in 1922, Shaw sent a personal message of condolence to one of Collins’s sisters. He much admired (and was admired by) G. K. Chesterton. When Chesterton died, Shaw mourned his death in a poignant letter to Chesterton’s widow; he had always expected that he would predecease Chesterton, being the latter’s senior by almost two decades.
Shaw also enjoyed a (somewhat stormy) friendship with T.E. Lawrence, known most notably for his book Seven Pillars of Wisdom and his role as liaison for the Arab revolt during World War I. Lawrence even used the name “Shaw” as his nom de guerre when he joined the Royal Air Force as an aircraftman in the 1920s.

Jeanne au bûcher
Must then a Christ perish in torment in every age to save those that have no imagination?
Another friend was the composer Edward Elgar, whose work Shaw revered. Though Elgar was a Conservative, they had interests, besides music, in common – for instance both opposed vivisection. Elgar dedicated one of his late works, Severn Suite, to Shaw; and Shaw exerted himself (eventually with success) to persuade the BBC to commission from Elgar a third symphony, though this piece remained incomplete at Elgar’s death. Shaw’s correspondence with the motion picture producer Gabriel Pascal, who was the first to bring Shaw’s plays successfully to the screen and who later tried to put into motion a musical adaptation of Pygmalion, but died before he could realize it, is published in a book titled Bernard Shaw and Gabriel Pascal., A stage play by Hugh Whitemore, The Best of Friends, provides a window on the friendships of Dame Laurentia McLachlan, OSB (late Abbess of Stanbrook) with Sir Sydney Cockerelland Shaw through adaptations from their letters and writings. A television adaptation of the play, aired on PBS, starred John Gielgud as Cockerell, Wendy Hiller as Laurentia, and Patrick McGoohan as Shaw. It is available on DVD.
Shaw’s, perhaps, most personally revealing and, definitely, most voluminous letter correspondence, though, was with his fellow playwright and intimate friend from childhood, Mathew Edward McNulty. The very, very small extant fragment of this correspondence is housed in the Rare Book Collection at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Shaw 16 _-_1889
The liar’s punishment is, not in the least that he is not believed, but that he cannot believe any one else.
Shaw bought his first camera in 1898 and was an active amateur photographer until his death in 1950. Before 1898 Shaw had been an early supporter of photography as a serious art form. His non-fiction writing includes many reviews of photographic exhibitions such as those by his friend Alvin Langdon Coburn.
The photographs document a prolific literary and political life – Shaw’s friends, travels, politics, plays, films and home life. It also records his experiments with photography over 50 years and for the photographic historian provides a record of the development of the photographic and printing techniques available to the amateur photographer between 1898 and 1950.
The collection is currently the subject of a major project, Man & Cameraman which will allow online access to thousands of photos taken by Shaw.
Political, social, and religious views

Shaw asserted that each social class strove to serve its own ends, and that the upper and middle classes won in the struggle while the working class lost. He condemned the democratic system of his time, saying that workers, ruthlessly exploited by greedy employers, lived in abject poverty and were too ignorant and apathetic to vote intelligently. He believed this deficiency would ultimately be corrected by the emergence of long-lived supermen with experience and intelligence enough to govern properly. He called the developmental process elective breeding but it is sometimes referred to as shavian eugenics, largely because he thought it was driven by a “Life Force” that led women — subconsciously — to select the mates most likely to give them superior children. The outcome Shaw envisioned is dramatised in Back to Methuselah, a monumental play depicting human development from its beginning in the Garden of Eden until the distant future.

In 1882, influenced by Henry George’s view that the rent value of land belongs to all, Shaw concluded that private ownership of land and its exploitation for personal profit was a form of theft, and advocated equitable distribution of land and natural resources and their control by governments intent on promoting the commonwealth. Shaw believed that income for individuals should come solely from the sale of their own labour and that poverty could be eliminated by giving equal pay to everyone. These concepts led Shaw to apply for membership of the Social Democratic Federation (SDF), led by H. M. Hyndman who introduced him to the works of Karl Marx. Shaw never joined the SDF, which favoured forcible reforms. Instead, in 1884, he joined the newly formed Fabian Society, which accorded with his belief that reform should be gradual and induced by peaceful means rather than by outright revolution. Shaw was an active Fabian. He wrote many of their pamphlets, lectured tirelessly on behalf of their causes and provided money to set up The New Age, an independent socialist journal. As a Fabian, he participated in the formation of the Labour Party. The Intelligent Woman’s Guide to Socialism and Capitalism provides a clear statement of his socialistic views. As evinced in plays like Major Barbara and Pygmalion, class struggle is a motif in much of Shaw’s writing.
Oscar Wilde was the sole literary signatory of Shaw’s petition for a pardon of the anarchists arrested (and later executed) after theHaymarket massacre in Chicago in 1886.
Shaw 17
The test of a man or woman’s breeding is how they behave in a quarrel.

Shaw opposed the execution of Sir Roger Casement in 1916. He wrote a letter “as an Irishman” to The Times, which they rejected, but it was subsequently printed by both the Manchester Guardian on 22 July 1916, and by the New York American on 13 August 1916.
Shaw was not necessarily better informed about actual conditions in other countries than other people were at the time, and tended to believe the best of people who professed similar principles to those he held himself. This led to him taking some positions that now seem grotesque.
After visiting the USSR in 1931 and meeting Joseph Stalin, Shaw became a supporter of the Stalinist USSR. On 11 October 1931 he broadcast a lecture on American national radio telling his audience that any ‘skilled workman…of suitable age and good character’ would be welcomed and given work in the Soviet Union. Tim Tzouliadis asserts that several hundred Americans responded to his suggestion and left for the USSR.
Shaw continued this support for Stalin’s system in the preface to his play On the Rocks (1933) writing:
But the most elaborate code of this sort would still have left unspecified a hundred ways in which wreckers of Communism could have sidetracked it without ever having to face the essential questions: are you pulling your weight in the social boat? are you giving more trouble than you are worth? have you earned the privilege of living in a civilized community? That is why the Russians were forced to set up an Inquisition or Star Chamber, called at first the Cheka and now the Gay Pay Oo (Ogpu), to go into these questions and “liquidate” persons who could not answer them satisfactorily.
Yet, Shaw defends “the sacredness of criticism”:
Put shortly and undramatically the case is that a civilization cannot progress without criticism, and must therefore, to save itself from stagnation and putrefaction, declare impunity for criticism. This means impunity not only for propositions which, however novel, seem interesting, statesmanlike, and respectable, but for propositions that shock the uncritical as obscene, seditious, blasphemous, heretical, and revolutionary.
In an open letter to the Manchester Guardian in 1933, he dismissed stories—which were later determined to be largely substantiated—of a Soviet famine as slanderous, and contrasts them with the hardships then current in the West during the Great Depression:
We desire to record that we saw nowhere evidence of such economic slavery, privation, unemployment and cynical despair of betterment as are accepted as inevitable and ignored by the press as having “no news value” in our own countries.”
In the preface to On The Rocks he wrote:
It sounds simple; but the process requires better planning than is always forthcoming (with local famines and revolts as the penalty); for while the grass grows the steed starves; and when education means not only schools and teachers, but giant collective farms equipped with the most advanced agricultural machinery, which means also gigantic engineering works for the production of the machinery, you may easily find that you have spent too much on these forms of capitalization and are running short of immediately consumable goods, presenting the spectacle of the nation with the highest level of general culture running short of boots and tightening its belt for lack of sufficient food.
I must not suggest that this has occurred all over Russia; for I saw no underfed people there; and the children were remarkably plump. And I cannot trust the reports; for I have no sooner read in The Times a letter from Mr Kerensky assuring me that in the Ukraine the starving people are eating one another, than M. Herriot, the eminent French statesman, goes to Russia and insists on visiting the Ukraine so that he may have ocular proof of the alleged cannibalism, but can find no trace of it. Still, between satiety and starvation mitigated by cannibalism there are many degrees of shortage; and it is no secret that the struggle of the Russian Government to provide more collective farms and more giant factories to provide agricultural machinery for them has to be carried on against a constant clamor from the workers for new boots and clothes, and more varied food and more of it: in short, less sacrifice of the present to the future.
shaw 18 The_Damsel_of_the_Sanct_Grael_or_Holy_Grail

Shaw 19

If you leave your art, the world will beat you back to it. The world has not an ambition worth sharing, or a prize worth handling…
He wrote a defence of Lysenkoism in a letter to Labour Monthly, in which he asserted that an “acquired characteristic” could be heritable, writing of Lysenko: “Following up Michurin’s agricultural experiments he found that it is possible to extend the area of soil cultivation by breeding strains of wheat that flourish in a sub-Arctic climate, and transmit this acquired characteristic to its seed.” He added:
Lysenko is on the right side as a Vitalist; but the situation is confused by the purely verbal snag that Marx called his philosophy Dialectical Materialism. Now in Russia Marx is a Pontif; and all scientists who do not call themselves Materialists must be persecuted. Accordingly, Lysenko has to pretend that he is a Materialist when he is in fact a Vitalist; and thus muddles us ludicrously. Marxism seems to have gone as mad as Weismannism; and it is no longer surprising that Marx had to insist that he was not a Marxist.
Despite Shaw’s scepticism about the creation of the Irish Free State, he was supportive of Éamon de Valera’s stance on the Second World War, including his policy of refusing to fall in line with the Allies’ demand towards neutral countries on refusing to provide asylum to Axis war criminals during the war. According to Shaw “The voice of the Irish gentleman and Spanish grandee was a welcome relief from the chorus of retaliatory rancor and self-righteousness then deafening us”.
Shaw delivered speeches on the theory of eugenics and he became a noted figure in the movement in England.
Shaw’s play Man and Superman (1903) has been said to be “invested with eugenic doctrines” and “an ironic reworking” of Nietzsche’s concept of Übermensch. The main character in the play, John Tanner, is the author of “The Revolutionist’s Handbook and Pocket Companion”, which Shaw published along with his play. The Revolutionist’s Handbook includes chapters on “Good Breeding” and “Property and Marriage”. In the “Property and Marriage” section Tanner writes:
To cut humanity up into small cliques, and effectively limit the selection of the individual to his own clique, is to postpone the Superman for eons, if not for ever. Not only should every person be nourished and trained as a possible parent, but there should be no possibility of such an obstacle to natural selection as the objection of a countess to a navvy or of a duke to a charwoman. Equality is essential to good breeding; and equality, as all economists know, is incompatible with property.
In this Shaw was managing to synthesize eugenics with socialism, his best-loved political doctrine. This was a popular concept at the time.

shaw 9
Shaw in 1905
When, in 1910, Shaw wrote that natural attraction rather than wealth or social class should govern selection of marriage partners, the concept of eugenics did not have the negative connotations it later the Nazis of Shaw topic in a light-hearted way, pointing out that if eugenics had been thought about some generations previously, he himself may not have been born, so depriving humanity of his great contributions. He seems to have maintained his opinion throughout his life.
As with many of the topics that Shaw addressed, but particularly so in his examination of the “social purity” movement, he used irony, misdirection and satire to make his point. At a meeting of the Eugenics Education Society of 3 March 1910 he suggested the need to use a “lethal chamber” to solve their problem. Shaw said: “We should find ourselves committed to killing a great many people whom we now leave living, and to leave living a great many people whom we at present kill. We should have to get rid of all ideas about capital punishment …” Shaw also called for the development of a “deadly” but “humane” gas for the purpose of killing, many at a time, those unfit to live.
In a newsreel interview released on 5 March 1931, dealing with alternatives to the imprisonment of criminals, Shaw says
You must all know half a dozen people at least who are no use in this world, who are more trouble than they are worth. Just put them there and say Sir, or Madam, now will you be kind enough to justify your existence? If you can’t justify your existence, if you’re not pulling your weight in the social boat, if you’re not producing as much as you consume or perhaps a little more, then, clearly, we cannot use the organizations of our society for the purpose of keeping you alive, because your life does not benefit us and it can’t be of very much use to yourself.
Shaw, however, often used satiric irony in order to mock those who took eugenics to inhumane extremes and commentators have sometimes failed to take this into account. Some noticed that this was an example of Shaw satirically employing the reductio ad absurdum argument against the eugenicists’ wilder aspirations: The Globe and The Evening News recognised it as a skit on the dreams of the eugenicists, though many others in the press took his words out of their satirical context. Dan Stone of Liverpool University writes: “Either the press believed Shaw to be serious, and vilified him, or recognised the tongue-in-cheek nature of his lecture”.
In his will, Shaw stated that his “religious convictions and scientific views cannot at present be more specifically defined than as those of a believer in creative revolution.” He requested that no one should imply that he accepted the beliefs of any specific religious organization, and that no memorial to him should “take the form of a cross or any other instrument of torture or symbol of blood sacrifice.”
From: Gary Sloan, “The religion of George Bernard Shaw: when is an Atheist?”, published in American Atheist Magazine, Autumn 2004:
…Until he was thirty or so, Shaw called himself an Atheist. He became one, he later quipped, before he could think. He adjudged the doctrines of the Church of Ireland, which he attended as a child, unintelligible or absurd. Since the first of its Thirty-nine Articles describes god as “without body, parts, or passions,” he waggishly theorized that the church was atheistic. An incomprehensible god, he opined, was tantamount to no god. In 1875, he blazoned his Atheism abroad. In a letter to Public Opinion, a Dublin newspaper, he “announced with inflexible materialistic logic, and to the extreme horror of my respectable connections, that I was an atheist.” In Immaturity, the first of five novels he wrote in his twenties, the young protagonist, obviously Shaw’s alter ego, walks pensively in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey: “His hushed step, impressive bearing, and reflective calm, marked him as a confirmed freethinker.”
In “The New Theology,” he prepped his audience: “When you are asked, ‘Where is God? Who is God?’ stand up and say, ‘I am God and here is God, not as yet completed, but still advancing towards completion, just in so much as I am working for the purpose of the universe, working for the good of the whole society and the whole world, instead of merely looking after my personal ends.”‘ God “would provide himself with a perfectly fashioned and trustworthy instrument. And such an instrument would be nothing less than God himself.””
[Sloan concludes his lengthy essay about the religion of George Bernard Shaw (only excerpts from which appear here) by opining:] So if, as theologians and philosophers have traditionally maintained, existence is a necessary attribute of God, Shaw qualifies as an Atheist, albeit an involuntary one.

Shaw 10 _Statue
A statue of Shaw in Niagara-on-the-Lake
In his old age, Shaw was a household name both in Britain and Ireland, and was famed throughout the world. His ironic wit endowed English with the adjective “Shavian”, used to characterize observations such as: “My way of joking is to tell the truth. It’s the funniest joke in the world.” Concerned about the vagaries of English spelling, Shaw willed a portion of his wealth (probated at £367,233 13s) to fund the creation of a new phonemic alphabet for the English language. However, the money available was insufficient to support the project, so it was neglected for a time. This changed when his estate began earning significant royalties from the rights to Pygmalion after My Fair Lady—the musical adapted from Pygmalion by Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe—became a hit. However, the Public Trustee found the intended trust to be invalid because its intent was to serve a private interest instead of a charitable purpose, and as a non-charitable purpose trust, it could not be enforced because it failed to satisfy the beneficiary principle. In the end an out-of-court settlement granted only £8600 for promoting the new alphabet, which is now called the Shavian alphabet. The National Gallery of Ireland, RADA and the British Museum all received substantial bequests.
Shaw’s home, now called Shaw’s Corner, in the small village of Ayot St Lawrence, Hertfordshire is a National Trust property, open to the public. The Shaw Theatre, Euston Road, London, opened in 1971, was named in his honour. Near its entrance, opposite the new British Library, a contemporary statue of Saint Joan commemorates Shaw as author of that play.
The Shaw Festival, an annual theater festival in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada began as an eight-week run of Don Juan in Hell (as the long third act dream sequence of Man And Superman is called when staged alone) and Candida in 1962, and has grown into an annual festival with over 800 performances a year, dedicated to producing the works of Shaw and his contemporaries. The portrait of George Bernard Shaw located at Niagara-on-the-Lake was commissioned by hotelier Si Wai Lai and sculpted by Dr. Elizabeth Bradford Holbrook, CM (1913–2009).
He is also remembered as one of the pivotal founders of the London School of Economics, whose library is now called the British Library of Political and Economic Science. The Fabian Window, designed by Shaw, hangs in the Shaw Library in the main building of the LSE.

Cashel Byron’s Profession
The Irrational Knot
Love Among the Artists
Short stories
The Black Girl in Search of God (1932)
The Miraculous Revenge
An Unsocial Socialist

• Plays Unpleasant (published 1898)
• Widowers’ Houses (1892)
• The Philanderer (1898)
• Mrs Warren’s Profession (1893)
• Plays Pleasant (published 1898):
• Arms and the Man (1894)
• Candida (1894)
• The Man of Destiny (1895)
• You Never Can Tell (1897)
• Three Plays for Puritans (published 1901)
• The Devil’s Disciple (1897)
• Caesar and Cleopatra (1898)
• Captain Brassbound’s Conversion (1899)
• The Admirable Bashville (1901)
• Man and Superman (1902–03)
• John Bull’s Other Island (1904)
• How He Lied to Her Husband (1904)
• Major Barbara (1905)
• The Doctor’s Dilemma (1906)
• Getting Married (1908)
• The Glimpse of Reality (1909)
• The Fascinating Foundling (1909)
• Press Cuttings (1909)
• Misalliance (1910)
• Annajanska, the Bolshevik Empress (1917)
• The Dark Lady of the Sonnets (1910)
• Fanny’s First Play (1911)
• Overruled (1912)
• Androcles and the Lion (1912)
• Pygmalion (1912–13)
• The Great Catherine (1913)
• The Inca of Perusalem (1915)

• O’Flaherty VC (1915)
• Augustus Does His Bit (1916)
• Heartbreak House (1919)
• Back to Methuselah (1921)

• In the Beginning
• The Gospel of the Brothers Barnabas
• The Thing Happens
• Tragedy of an Elderly Gentleman
• As Far as Thought Can Reach
• Saint Joan (1923)
• The Apple Cart (1929)
• Too True To Be Good (1931)
• On the Rocks (1933)
• The Six of Calais (1934)
• The Simpleton of the Unexpected Isles (1934)
• The Shewing Up of Blanco Posnet (1909)
• The Millionairess (1936)
• Geneva (1938)
• In Good King Charles’s Golden Days (1939)
• Buoyant Billions (1947)
• Shakes versus Shav (1949)

• Quintessence of Ibsenism (1891)
• The Perfect Wagnerite, Commentary on the Ring (1898)
• Maxims for Revolutionists (1903)
• Preface to Major Barbara (1905)
• “On Going to Church” (1905)
• How to Write a Popular Play (1909)
• Treatise on Parents and Children (1910)
• Common Sense about the War (1914)
• The Intelligent Woman’s Guide to Socialism and Capitalism (1928)
• Major Critical Essays (1930). Quintessence of Ibsenism (1891), The Perfect Wagnerite (1898) and The Sanity of Art in one volume.
• Essays in Fabian Socialism (1931). Revised and reprinted in the Standard Edition, 1932.
• Pen Portraits and Reviews (1931). Revised and reprinted in the Standard Edition, 1932.
• Doctors’ Delusions, Crude Criminology, Sham Education (1931). Revised and reprinted in the Standard Edition, 1932.
• Short Stories, Scraps and Shavings (1932). Revised and reprinted in the Standard Edition, 1934.
• Our Theatres in the Nineties (1932). Collected drama criticism.
• Dictators – Let Us Have More of Them (1938)
• Everybody’s Political What’s What? (1944)
• Sixteen Self Sketches (1949)
• The Selected Prose of Bernard Shaw (1952). Selected and with Introduction by Diarmuid Russell. One thousand pages of essays, criticism, extracts from novels, etc. Contains The Perfect Wagnerite and The Quintessence of Ibsenism complete, including prefaces. Also contains Shaw’s biographical prefaces to Immaturity and London Music in 1888–1889. Thematically organised and finely introduced. Excellent introduction to the scope of Shaw’s prose.
• Shaw on Shakespeare: An Anthology of Bernard Shaw’s Writings (1961)
• Shaw: An Autobiography (1970). Selected and edited by Stanley Weintraub. 2 vols.
• What Shaw Really Wrote about the War (2006). Edited by J. L. Wisenthal and Daniel O’Leary.
Musical Criticism
• Music in London 1890–94. Criticism Contributed Week by Week to the World. 3 vols, 1932.
• London Music in 1888–89 as Heard by Corno di Bassetto (later known as Bernard Shaw) with Some Further Autobiographical Particulars, 1937. Contains important, some 30 pages long, preface by Shaw.
• Collected Music Criticism. New York: Vienna House, 1973. 4 vols. Reprints the two titles above.
• How to Become a Musical Critic. Rupert Hart-Davis, 1960. Edited and with Introduction by Dan H. Laurence. Previously uncollected pieces on music written between 1883 and 1950.
• Shaw’s Music: The Complete Musical Criticism Of Bernard Shaw. The Bodley Head, Paperback, 1989. 3 vols. Second Revised Edition. Edited by Dan H. Laurence. Definitive edition.
• Vol. 1: 1876–1890. Editor’s Introduction and Notes, including one to the Second Edition.
• Vol. 2: 1890–1893.
• Vol. 3: 1893–1950. General Index to all volumes.
• Note. First published in hardback in 1981. The Second Revised Edition was published only in paperback and it differs from the earlier one by only four short pieces [Dan H. Laurence, ‘Editor’s Note to the Second Edition’].
• Shaw on Music. Applause, 2000. Edited by Eric Bentley. Fine, thematically organised selection, mostly from Shaw’s professional criticism (1889–1894).
• The Perfect Wagnerite (1898). Dover edition, 1967. Reprint of the Fourth Edition (1923). Contains the prefaces to the first three editions.
• Shaw v. Chesterton, a debate between George Bernard Shaw and G. K. Chesterton (2000) Third Way Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-9535077-7-7. E-text
• Do We Agree, a debate between G. B. Shaw and G. K. Chesterton with Hilaire Belloc as chairman (1928)

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